Prof. Dr. Md. Mostafizer Rahman
Head, Department of Microbiology
Contact Number: 01711978333
E-mail: mostafiz_tm@yahoo.com

Course Curriculum_Hon’s

The distribution of Courses and Credit Hours in B.Sc. (Hons) in Microbiology

 

 

The 4-year B.Sc (Hon’s) will span over 8 semesters. Each year is divided into two semesters consisting of 26 weeks each. Eighteen weeks are allocated for the classes while rest of the 8 weeks takes for preparation of examination, publication of results and vacation. The total credit requirements are 132 of which semester-wise course distribution has been outlined in the following table. A minimum of 18 class hours will constitute one credit and will carry 25 marks. There shall be three types of courses Theoretical, Practical/Research Project and Viva-voce. Of the total 132 credits, 112 credits are allocated for Theoretical courses (departmental 87 and extra-departmental 25). Practical courses including research project will have 20 credits.

 

Theoretical course will include class-teaching, assignment, tutorial, midterm examinations etc. Each theoretical course will be assessed by Continuous Evaluation (30% marks) and Semester Final Examination (70% marks). Practical courses for two credit hours will be at least two contact hours in a week. During the final year (7th and 8th semester), a research project will be assigned to the students and it will be decided by the departmental academic committee. Each viva-voce examination will have 1 credit point except in 8th semester (2 credit points) and will be held at the end of each semester-final examination.

 

Year Semester Courses Credit Hours (CH)
First Year First Semester Departmental courses 9.0
Extra-departmental courses 9.0
Second Semester Departmental courses 10.0
Extra-departmental courses 6.0
Second Year Third Semester Departmental courses 11.0
Extra-departmental courses 6.0
Fourth Semester Departmental courses 13.0
Extra-departmental courses 4.0
Third Year Fifth Semester Departmental courses 17.0
Sixth Semester Departmental courses 14.0
Fourth Year Seventh Semester Departmental courses 16.0
Eighth Semester Departmental courses 17.0
    Total 132.0

 

 

 

 

 

Semester wise Courses and Credit Hours

 

 

First Year (First Semester)

 

Course No. Course Name Credit Hour
Departmental Courses    
Microbiol. 1101 General Microbiology-I 2.0
Microbiol. 1102 Basic Techniques in Microbiology 2.0
Microbiol. 1103 Anatomy 2.0
Microbiol. 1104 Practical 2.0
Extra-Departmental Courses    
Microbiol. 1101E General Chemistry-I 2.0
Microbiol. 1102E Bangla 2.0
Microbiol. 1103E English-I 2.0
Microbiol. 1104E Environmental Science 3.0
Microbiol. 1105 Viva- voce 1.0
  Total 18.0

 

First Year (Second Semester)

 

Course No. Course Name Credit Hour
Departmental Courses    
Microbiol. 1201 General Microbiology-II 2.0
Microbiol. 1202 Microbial Chemistry 2.0
Microbiol. 1203 Human physiology 3.0
Microbiol. 1204 Practical 2.0
Extra-Departmental Courses    
Microbiol. 1201E General Chemistry-II 2.0
Microbiol. 1202E English-II 2.0
Microbiol. 1203E Social Studies 2.0
Microbiol. 1205 Viva- voce 1.0
  Total 16.0

 

Second Year (Third Semester)

 

Course No. Course Name Credit Hour
Departmental Courses    
Microbiol. 2301 Microbial Ecology 2.0
Microbiol. 2302 Environmental Microbiology 2.0
Microbiol. 2303 Microbial Metabolism-I 2.0
Microbiol. 2304 Clinical Pathology 2.0
Microbiol. 2305 Practical 2.0
Extra-Departmental Courses    
Microbiol. 2301E Mathematics and Statistics 2.0
Microbiol. 2302E General Chemistry Laboratory 2.0
Microbiol. 2303E Biochemistry-I 2.0
Microbiol. 2306 Viva- voce 1.0
  Total 17.0

 

 

Second Year (Fourth Semester)

 

Course No. Course Name Credit Hour
Departmental Courses    
Microbiol. 2401 Virology-I 2.0
Microbiol. 2402 Basic Microbial Genetics 2.0
Microbiol. 2403 Microbial Metabolism-II 2.0
Microbiol. 2404 Mycology 2.0
Microbiol. 2405 Food Microbiology-I 2.0
Microbiol. 2406 Practical 2.0
Extra-Departmental Courses    
Microbiol. 2401E Biostatistics 2.0
Microbiol. 2402E Biochemistry-II 2.0
Microbiol. 2407 Viva- voce 1.0
  Total 17.0

 

Third Year (Fifth Semester)

 

Course No. Course Name Credit Hour
Departmental Courses    
Microbiol. 3501 Virology-II 3.0
Microbiol. 3502 Molecular Genetics 3.0
Microbiol. 3503 Agricultural Microbiology 2.0
Microbiol. 3504 Fermentation Technology 2.0
Microbiol. 3505 Food Microbiology-II 2.0
Microbiol. 3506 Computer Data Analysis 2.0
Microbiol. 3507 Practical 2.0
Microbiol. 3508 Viva- voce 1.0
  Total 17.0

 

Third Year (Sixth Semester)

 

Course No. Course Name Credit Hour
Departmental Courses    
Microbiol. 3601 Immunology-I 2.0
Microbiol. 3602 Medical Microbiology-I 2.0
Microbiol. 3603 Industrial Microbiology 3.0
Microbiol. 3604 Enzymology 2.0
Microbiol. 3605 Pharmaceutical Microbiology 2.0
Microbiol. 3606 Practical 2.0
Microbiol. 3607 Viva-voce 1.0
  Total 14.0

 

Fourth Year (Seventh Semester)

 

Course No. Course Name Credit Hour
Departmental Courses    
Microbiol. 4701 Immunology-II 2.0
Microbiol. 4702 Medical Microbiology-II 3.0
Microbiol. 4703 Environmental Biotechnology 3.0
Microbiol. 4704 Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics 3.0
Microbiol. 4705* Practical/ Research project 4.0
Microbiol. 4706 Viva-voce 1.0
  Total 16.0

 

*The same research project will be continued from the course # 4705 to course # 4806

 

Fourth Year (Eighth Semester)

 

Course No. Course Name Credit Hour
Departmental Courses    
Microbiol. 4801 Microbial Biotechnology 3.0
Microbiol. 4802 Diagnostic Microbiology 2.0
Microbiol. 4803 Analytical Microbiology 2.0
Microbiol. 4804 Quality Control of Food and Pharmaceuticals 2.0
Microbiol. 4805 Genetic Engineering 2.0
Microbiol. 4806* Practical/ Research project 4.0
Microbiol. 4807 Viva-voce 2.0
  Total 17.0

 

*The same research project will be continued from the course # 4705 to course # 4806

 

 

Detailed Outline of Course Curricula and Syllabuses 

 

First Year: 1st Semester

 

Course No. Course Name Credit Hours (CH)
Departmental Courses
Microbiol. 1101 General Microbiology-I 2.0
Microbiol. 1102 Basic Techniques in Microbiology 2.0
Microbiol. 1103 Anatomy 2.0
Microbiol. 1104 Practical 2.0
Extra-Departmental Courses    
Microbiol. 1101E General Chemistry-I 2.0
Microbiol. 1102E Bangla 2.0
Microbiol. 1103E English-I 2.0
Microbiol. 1104E Environmental Sciences 3.0
Microbiol. 1105 Viva- voce 1.0
  Total 18.0

 

 

Microbiol.1101          General Microbiology-I              2.0CH                 50 marks

 

  1. Microbiology: Basic concepts, definition and introduction of microbiology.
  2. Historical development of microbiology: Discovery of microorganisms, biogenesis and abiogenesis, germ theory, Koch’s postulates, vaccination, antisepsis, chemotherapy.
  3. Importance and exploitation of microbiology: In Food, human welfare, agriculture, industry, health and sanitation, environment and pollution control.
  4. Microbial life form: Prokaryotes, their morphology, subcellular structures, distinct features special significance of small forms of life.
  5. Major Groups of microorganisms: Characteristics and Salient features of bacteria, and actinomycetes, cyanobacteria, archaea, fungi, algae, protozoa and viruses.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Foundations in Microbiology, 8th Edition. Kathleen Park Talaro and Arthur Talaro. The McGraw−Hill Companies, Inc., New York.
  2. Prescott’s Microbiology, 8th Edition. 2010. Joanne Willey, Linda Sherwood and Chris Woolverton. The McGraw−Hill Companies, New York.
  3. Microbiology: An Introduction, 10th Edition. 2010. Gerard J Tortora, Berdell R Funke and Christine L Case. 2010.Pearson Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco.

 

 

 

 

Microbiol.1102    Basic Techniques in Microbiology       2.0 CH          50 marks

 

  1. Microscopy and Staining: Principles, function, application and care of various microscopes. Types of staining (Simple, Differential and Special staining).
  2. Basic laboratory techniques: For isolation, cultivation, pure culture and anaerobic culture techniques in Microbiology.
  3. Characteristics and Identification of microorganisms: Based on Morphological, Cultural and Biochemical properties.
  4. Techniques of microbial control: Sterilization, Pasteurization by different physical and chemical methods.
  5. Culture preservation and management: Short term and long term preservation.
  6. Measurement of microbial growth: By direct and indirect methods.
  7. Nutritional and physical requirement: For cultivation of microorganisms.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Microbial Ecology; Fundamental and Applications – Atlas RM and Bartha R
  2. Microbial Ecology: A conceptual Approach – Lynch JM & Poole NJ
  3. Microbiology, 5th Edition – Pelczer MJ Jr, Chan ECS & Krieg NR
  4. Microbiology: An Introduction, 9thEdition – Tortora GJ & Funke BR
  5. Fundamental Principles of Bacteriology – AJ Salle

 

Microbial.1103         Anatomy                            2.0 CH                           50 marks

 

  1. Basic structure and organization of the body: structure and function of cell nucleus, cytoplasmic organelles, cell membrane
  2. Skeletal system: Bone tissue, bones of the skeleton, joints.
  3. Basic structure of the respiratory system: Lung, trachea, bronchioles and bronchioles and alveoli.
  4. Basic structure of the circulatory system: Heart, arteries, capillaries, viens and venules.
  5. Structure of the urinary system: Kidney, glomerulus, ureter, bladder and urethra.
  6. Digestive system: Digestive tract (from mouth to anus).
  7. Nervous system: Central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervous system, Cerebrospinal fluid (composition).
  8. Special senses of the body: Sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, Endocrine system.
  9. Brief discussion on: Chromosomes (structure and karyotype), genes, (dominant and recessive genes) autosome and sex chromosome, autosomal and sex linked disorders, genotype, phenotype.
  10. Male reproductive system: external genitalia, internal-testes and ducts, epididymides, ejaculatory ducts, prostate gland.
  11. Female reproductive system: external genitalia, internal-ovaries, uterine/fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, vagina.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Introduction to Human Physiology- Griffiths m
  2. Human Physiology- Schumddt RF &Thews G
  3. Human Anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology-Thews G, mustschler f &Vaupe p

 

 

Microbial.1104           Practical                            2.0 CH                      50 marks

 

  1. Introduction to safety regulations and hygiene practice on working in microbiology laboratory.
  2. Microscopy: Use and function of microscopes.
  3. Micrometry: Measurement of size of different microbial cells.
  4. Bacterial staining: Simple staining and negative staining, Gram staining, Acid fast staining, Spore staining.
  5. Cultivation techniques: Media preparation and Sterilization techniques, Sterility testing culture transfer techniques, Techniques for isolation of pure cultures.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Text Book of Medical Laboratory Technology, Volume I & II,2014 – Profullo and Godkar
  2. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries , New Edition, Volume I & II – Monica Cheesbrough
  3. Microbiology- A Laboratory Manual, 7th Edition – Cuppuccino & Sherman. Dorling Kindersely (India) pvt Ltd

 

 

Microbial.1101E         General Chemistry-I              2.0 CH              50 marks

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  1. Inorganic Chemistry: Introduction, atomic structure, atomic weight, atomic number, atomic mass number, Rutherford theory, Borh theory, arrangement of the elector in an atom, atomic orbital, Polly exclusion principle.
  2. Chemical bonds: Electrovalent bond, co-valent bond, co-ordinate covalent bond, hydrogen bond, metallic bond, modern periodic law, usefulness and limitation of periodic table.
  3. Organic chemistry: Introduction, carbon- carbon bond, carbon-nitrogen bond, tetrahedral carbon atom.
  4. Preparation and properties: Of (a) Alkanes, alkenes and (b) alkyl halides, (c) alcohols, (d) aldehydes and ketones.
  5. Introduction to stereochemistry.

 

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Molecular Inorganic Chemistry – R. D. Madan
  2. Modern Inorganic Chemistry – S. Z. Haider
  3. Organic Chemistry, 7th Edition – Robert Thornton Morrison, Robert Neilson Boyal
  4. Advanced Organic Chemistry – ArunBhall, B.S. Bhall

 

 

Microbial. 1102E                        Bangla                   2.0 CH                 50 marks

 

1. fvlv :fvlvKx, fvlvi ‰ewkó¨, c„w_exi fvlvmg~n t evsjvfvlvi ¯’vb |
2. fvlv †kLvi `ÿZv t †kvbv, ejv, cov I  †jLv |
3. aŸwbg~jaŸwb (Phoneme):

K) evMhš¿  L) aŸwb-m„RbcÖwµqv- ¯^iaŸwb I e¨ÄbaŸwb  M) ‡gŠwLK I  bvwmK¨ aŸwb|  N) Zzjbvg~jK I ˆecwiZ¨g~jKaŸwbZZ¡tevsjv, Bs‡iRx , divwm I wKQz Ab¨ fvlviD`vnib |  O) K_¨ evsjviaŸwbgyjwbb©qGes K_¨ evsjv I wewfbœevsjvDcfvlviaŸwbiZzjbvgyjKch©v‡jvPbv|

4. iƒcg~j (Morpheme) Ges kã (Word )t K) k‡ãims&Áv  L) k‡ãiMVbcÖwµqv  M)  k‡ãi ‡kÖYxwefvM N)  GKB  k‡ãiwfbœ A‡_© cÖ‡qvM|
5. ev‡K¨i MVb cÖwµqvt K) D‡Ïk¨, we‡`n/ AvKvsÿv, †hvM¨Zv, Avmw³| L) kã †_‡K evK¨ Drcv`b I MVbtmij, RwUj I wgkÖevK¨| M) ev‡K¨iDcwiZj I MfxiZ‡jiaviYv|
6. kãv_©ZË¡wK, kãv‡_©icÖ‡qvM|
7. fvlvixwZ– mvay I PwjZ
8. KweZvt K) KweZvi ¸iæZ¡ I cÖKvi‡f`, L) M`¨ I KweZvi ˆkjxMZcv_©K¨, M) KweZvqDcgvie¨envi|
9. wbe©vwPZcvVwe‡kølY (KweZv) Ñ KvRxbRiæjBmjvgÓwe‡`ªvnxÓ|
10. wbe©vwPZcvVwe‡kølY (M`¨) Ñ iex›`ªbv_ VvKziÓmgvwßÓ|

‡iv‡KqvmvLvIqvZ †nv‡mbtÒKzcgÛz‡Kiwngvjq `k©bÓ

‰mq` IqvjxDjøvntjvjmvjy ( Ask we‡kl)|

 

Books Recommended:

  1. evsjvmvwn‡Z¨iBwZnvm – gvneyeyjAvjg
  2. ev½vjv mvwn‡Z¨iBwZnvm – myKzgvi †mb
  3. evsjvmvwn‡Z¨iBwZK_v ( 1g ch©vq) – f~‡`e †PŠayix
  4. ev½vwji BwZnvm ( Avw` ce©) , 2q ms¯‹iY, KjKvZv : †`R cvewj‡KkÝ,1412 – bxnviiÄbivq
  5. e„nr e½ (1gI2q LÛ), KjKvZv: KjKvZvwek¦: 1341

 

Microbial.1103E                      English-I                     2.0 CH                  50 marks

 

  1. Foundation Review-English tense system: Basic pattern of sentences, changing sentences into interrogative, negative, exclamatory etc., present, past and pas participles forms of verbs-based on students’ need.
  2. Writing skill: (a) Application to VC, Dean and Chairman, (b) Application to Editor of a newspaper, (c) Paragraph writing-comparing and contrasting.
  3. Reading skill: (a) Reading small passages for specific answers, (b) Reading short stories for overall idea.
  4. Speaking skill: (a) Basic pronunciation skill-Recognizing places of Articulaton, recognizing phonetic symbols,  (b) Asking questions, requesting, inviting, agreeing, disagreeing, drawing attention etc. (c) Controlled speaking practice- Speaking in classroom on prepared topics.
  5. Listening skill: (a) Listening to special English, (b) Listening to small dialogues.

Books Recommended:

  1. A Communicative Grammar of English – Leech and Svartvik
  2. Intermediate English Grammar – Raymond Murphy
  3. High School Grammar – Wren and Martin
  4. Basic English Language Skills – Dr. M Manirzzaman
  5. Ship or Sheep (with cassettes) – Ann, Baker
  6. Cliffs TOEFL – Michael A. & Pyle, M.A
  7. New Headway – Liz & John Soars, Oxford University Press.

 

 

Microbial.1104E        Environmental Science           3.0 CH                  75 marks

 

 

  1. Fundamentals of Environmental Sciences: Concept and components of environment.
  2. Ecosystem: Definition, structure and function of ecosystem, biogeochemical cycles- a brief explanation.
  3. Ecosystem changes: Equilibrium and sustainability of ecosystems; human impact on ecosystem, restoration of ecosystem.
  4. National resource: Types of resources and usage, economic growth and environment, environmental degradation.
  5. Human impact on earth: Historical perspective, Hunting-and gathering society and industrial society; impact on environment and sustainability.
  6. Matter and Energy: Types of matter and energy, use and conservation of matter and energy, Laws of matter and energy, use, environmental problems, flow of energy and matter in ecosystems-Bangladesh perspective.
  7. Population: Population growth, Distribution, population control, National and global concerns, Poverty and under – development.
  8. Resources: Water, Soil, Land, Biodiversity, Mineral resources, Energy resources, Air as resource, conservation resources, Desertification and salinity problem.
  9. Pollution: Air pollution, Water pollution and global climate change, Fertilizers and pesticides use and their impacts, Prevention measures.
  10. Environment and society: Environmental ethics, Economics and culture, Sustainable human economy, The challenge of sustainability, Building a sustainable society at national and global context, Challenges faced by less- developed countries.
  11. Government, politics and environmental protection, sustainable earth.
  12. Environmental Low : Legal issues, international, National and individual levels
  13. Awareness building: Media and environment, environment education, Research.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Environmental Science – Tyler Miller
  2. Environmental Science – D. D. Chiras
  3. Principles of environmental Science – Cunningham
  4. Bangladesh Environment –Firoz Ahmed
  5. cwi‡ek I `~lY – †MŠZgcvj

 

 

Microbial. 1105                  Viva- Voce                   1.0 CH                      25 Marks

 

Topics of all the theoretical and practical courses of 1st semester and other relevant matters will be included.

 

 

 

First Year: 2nd Semester

 

Course No. Course Name Credit Hours (CH)
Departmental Courses
Microbiol. 1201 General Microbiology-II 2.0
Microbiol. 1202 Microbial Chemistry 2.0
Microbiol. 1203 Human physiology 3.0
Microbiol. 1204 Practical 2.0
Extra-Departmental Courses    
Microbiol. 1201E General Chemistry-II 2.0
Microbiol. 1202E English-II 2.0
Microbiol. 1203E Social Studies 2.0
Microbiol. 1205 Viva- voce 1.0
  Total 16.0

 

Microbiol. 1201      General Microbiology-II                 2.0 CH             50 Marks

 

  1. Nutrition of microorganisms: Influence of various mineral elements and growth factors on microbial growth.
  2. Categorization of microbes: on the basis of nutritional requirements.
  3. Bacterial taxonomy: Nomenclature, hierarchal position, Classification of microorganisms based on Burgey’s Manual of systemic Bacteriology, Phylogenetic Tree.
  4. Culture media: Types, composition, preparation, use and dispersion.
  5. Growth of microbes: Detailed study of bacterial growth curve, mathematics of growth, synchronous growth influence of various factors on microbial growth.
  6. Atypical Bacteria: General characteristics and their important Species: Archaeobacteria, Mycoplasma, Rickettsia, Chlamydiae, Spirochaete.
  7. Representative genera of important Gram positive and gram negative bacteria: Escherichia, Rhizobium, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Bacillus,  Streptococcus and Staphylococcus.

Books recommended:

  1. Foundations in Microbiology, Eighth Edition. Kathleen Park TalaroandArthur Talaro. The McGraw−Hill Companies, Inc., New York.
  2. Prescott’s Microbiology, Eighth Edition. 2010. Joanne Willey, Linda Sherwood and Chris Woolverton. The McGraw−Hill Companies, New York.
  3. Microbiology: An Introduction, Tenth Edition. 2010. Gerard J Tortora, Berdell R Funke and Christine L Case. 2010. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco.

 

Microbiol. 1202                Microbial Chemistry     2.0 CH                     50 Marks

 

  1. Structure, Chemical composition and function of organelles: Capsule, Flagella, Pilli, Cell- wall, Cytoplasmic membrane, Pigments, Ribosome, Cytoplasmic inclusions and endospore.
  2. Antimicrobial agents: Type, Chemistry, Mode of action, Efficiency, Antimicrobial resistance.
  3. Structure, Function, Mechanism of action: Penicillin, Ampicillin, Streptomycin, Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol, Nyastatin and Gryseofulvin.
  4. Effectiveness of disinfectants: Commonly used in laboratories, Hospitals and household purposes.
  5. Properties and functions: The major and minor essential elements, Water and their role in microorganisms, pH, Osmosis and Diffusion.
  6. Bio-molecules and biopolymers: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic acids, and Proteins.

Books recommended:

  1. Bacterial metabolism – Gottschalk G
  2. Chemical Microbiolgy – Rose AH
  3. Antibiotics : A Scientific Approach- Agorov NS
  4. Leninger Principles of Biochemistry – Nelson DL & Cox MM

 


Microbial. 1203          Human Physiology               3.0 CH                     75 Marks

 

  1. General physiology: An introduction.
  2. Blood and circulatory system: composition, formation, destruction and function, blood coagulation, blood groups, tissue fluid, lymphatic system and lymph.
  3. Functions: Respiratory system and respiratory stimulants, cardiovascular system, urinary system.
  4. Endocrinology: Functions, Mechanisms and properties of different hormones.
  5. Reproductive system: Structure and function of testis, Ovary, Uterus and Placenta.
  6. Body fluid: Water and Electrolytes balance.
  7. Digestion and digestive system : Mechanisms and control of the secretion and composition
  8. Digestive juices: Digestion and absorption of food- stuffs.
  9. Nervous system: Special sense.

Books recommended:

  1. Introduction to Human Physiology- Griffiths m
  2. Human Physiology- Schumddt RF &Thews G
  3. Human Anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology-Thews G, mustschler f &Vaupe

 

 

Microbiol. 1204                     Practical                     2.0 CH                    50 Marks

 

  1. Pure culture characteristics: Characteristics of Bacteria and Yeast on various media.
  2. Preparation and Observation of stained microbial preparations: Bacteria, Yeast and Mycelial fungal cells, Protozoa, Algae, Actinomycetes.
  3. Biochemical tests for identification of microorganisms :Catalase test, Coagulase test, Oxides  test, Nitrate reduction test, Litmus milk reaction test, MIU, KIA, IMVIC test, Lipid, Casein ,Hydrolysis of gelatin test. Carbohydrate fermentation tests(Glucose, Fructose, Lactose, Maltose, Sucrose, Starch)
  4. Preservation techniques: Techniques for preservation and maintenance of pure cultures.
  5. Observation of permanent slides: Different microbial groups.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Text Book of Medical Laboratory Technology, Volume I & II,2014 – Profullo and Godkar
  2. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries , New Edition,Volume I & II – Monica Cheesbrough
  3. Microbiology- A Laboratory Manual, 7th Edition – Cuppuccino & Sherman. Dorling Kindersely (India) pvt Ltd

 

Microbiol.  1201E           General Chemistry- II            2.0 CH                 50 Marks

 

  1. Physical Chemistry: Kinetic theory of gases, Law of thermodynamic (only physical interpretation) Types of solution (their colligative properties)Vapour pressure, Surface tension, Viscosity, Elevation of boiling point, freezing point, Osmotic pressure, Law of  mass action, Chemical equilibrium, Chemical kinetics (first and second order reaction only).
  2. Electro- chemistry Preparation and properties: Of carboxylic acids and their derivatives, Aromatic compounds Heterocyclic compounds, Introduction to stereochemistry.

 

Books recommended:

  1. Principles of Physical Chemistry, latest Edition – Dr. Muhammad MahbubulHaque& Dr. Mohammad Yousuf Ali Mollah
  2. Chemistry, 9th Edition – Raymond Chang
  3. Organic Chemistry, 7th Edition – Robert Thronton Morrison & Robert Neilson Boyal

 

Microbiol . 1202E                    English-II                       2.0 CH                  50 Marks                         

 

  1. Communicative Grammar practice: Conception of Quantity (Count, Non- count), Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs, Making Requests and Apologies, Conditional sentences, Relative clauses.
  2. Writing Skill: (a)Writing about an incident, (b)Describing people,(c)Writing letters of requests and protests, (d)Letters of reply, (e)Letters of information and advice, (f)Paragraph writing Different kinds of paragraph, (g)Academic Essay and report writing- process and narrative (h)Diction: Words mean, denotation and connotation, Euphemism, three qualities of good diction, Imagery, Simile, Metaphor, Analogy, Personification, Allusion, Vagueness, Jargon.
  3. Reading Skill: (a) Reading scientific English, (b) Reading English Extensively: English short stories, (c) Reading English Intensively: English poems.
  4. Speaking Skill : (a)Taking interview, (b)Debating, (c)Giving speech
  5. Listening Skill: (a) Listening for specific information, (b) Listening for an overall idea.

 

Books recommended:

  1. A Communicative Grammar of English – Leech and   Svartvik
  2. Intermediate English Grammar – Raymond Murphy
  3. High School Grammar – Wren and Martin
  4. Basic English Language Skills – Dr. M Manirzzaman
  5. Ship or Sheep (with cassettes) – Ann, Baker
  6. Cliffs TOEFL – Michael A. & Pyle, M.A
  7. New Headway – Liz & John Soars, Oxford University Press

 

 

Microbiol. 1203E                    Social Studies                  2.0 CH                   50 marks

 

  1. Sociology: The basic concept of society and sociology.
  2. Concept of medical sociology and its importance.
  3. Types and activities of Organizations: Government, Non- government, Private.
  4. Civil sociology: Capitalism, Socialism.
  5. Culture: Elements of culture, types, Basic elements of Bangladesh culture
  6. Socialization: Definition, Theory of socialization, Agents of socialization.
  7. Social stratification: Definition, Factors of Social stratification
  8. Social Control: Definition, types and Agencies of social control
  9. Social inequality, Global inequality, Colonialism.

 

Books recommended:

  1. Sociology, 5th Edition – Giddens, Anthony, New York, Polity Press, 2006
  2. Sociology , 10 th Edition – Schaeker, Richard T. , Boston, McGraw-Hill,2007
  3. Sociology – Bottomore, T. B. , Calcutta, KP. Bakchi and Cham, 1992
  4. mgvRweÁvb mgxÿb, 7g ms¯‹iY – Kwig bvRgyj

 

Microbiol. 1205                 Viva – voce                         1.0 CH              25 Marks

 

Topics of all the theoretical and practical courses of 2nd semester and other relevant matters will be included.

 

Second Year: 3rd Semester

 

Course No. Course Name Credit Hours (CH)
Departmental Courses
Microbiol. 2301 Microbial Ecology 2.0
Microbiol. 2302 Environmental Microbiology 2.0
Microbiol. 2303 Microbial Metabolism-I 2.0
Microbiol. 2304 Clinical Pathology 2.0
Microbiol. 2305 Practical 2.0
Extra-Departmental Courses    
Microbiol. 2301E Mathematics and Statistics 2.0
Microbiol. 2302E General Chemistry Laboratory 2.0
Microbiol. 2303E Biochemistry-I 2.0
Microbiol. 2306 Viva- voce 1.0
  Total 17.0

 

 

Microbiol .2301      Microbial  Ecology                    2.0 CH                    50 Marks

 

  1. Microbial ecology and ecosystems: Fundamentals and importance of microbial ecology and Ecosystem.
  2. Microbial habitats and Niches: Brief introduction to microorganisms in soil, water and air.
  3. Factors affecting microorganisms in nature: Biotic and abiotic factors.
  4. Effect of abiotic factors on microorganisms: Abiotic limitations to microbial growth, Leibig’s Law of minimum, shelford’s low of tolerance.
  5. Effect of environmental determinants on microorganisms: Temperature, Radiation, Pressure, Salinity, Water activity, air movement, pH, Redox potential, inorganic compounds.
  6. Interactions among populations: Types, among microbial populations, microbial populations with plants and animal population.

 

Books recommended:

  1. Microbial Ecology , Fundamental and Applications – Atlas RM and Bartha R
  2. Microbial Ecology : A conceptual Approach – Lynch JM & Poole NJ
  3. Microbiology, 5th Edition – Pelczer MJ Jr, Chan ECS & Krieg NR
  4. Microbiology: An Introduction, 9th Edition – Tortora GJ & Funke BR

 

Microbiol. 2302              Environmental Microbiology         2.0  CH        50 Marks

 

  • Biological Interactions: Microbial Interaction – Interaction within a Single Microbial Population, Positive and Negative Interactions, Interaction among Diverse Microbial Populations; Types of Interactions – Neutralism, Commensalism, Synergism, Mutualism, Competition, Ammensalism, Parasitism and Predation; Microbe-Plant Interactions; Microbe-Animal Interactions.
  • Techniques for the Studying Environmental Microbes: Sample Collection; Sample Processing; Detection of Microbial Populations; Determination of Microbial Number and Biomass; Measurement of Microbial Metabolism.
  • Microbiology of Potable Water: Introduction to Indicator Organisms; Water-borne Pathogens; Isolation and Identification of Indicator Bacteria; Water-borne Pathogens.
  • Sanitation and Public Health Microbiology: Water Supply; Safe Water; Potable Water; Concept of Sanitation and Hygiene; Disposal of Human Excreta and Refuse.
  • Novel Pollution Problem: Xenobiotics and Recalcitrant Substances – Recalcitrant Halocarbors, Polychlo­rinated Biphenyls (PCBS), Alkyl Benzyl Sulfonates and Synthetic polymer; Persistence and Biomagnification of Xenobiotics; Biostimulation; Bioaugmentation.
  • Waste-Water and Effluent Treatment: Analytical Methods to Assess the Polluting Strength; Choice of Appropriate Treatment Methods – Biological Treatments, Chemical Treatments , and Physical Treatments; Biological Wastewater Treatment – Primary Treatment Secondary treatment and tertiary treatment; Anaerobic Waste-Water Treatment.

Books recommended:

  1. Microbial Ecology: Fundamentals and Applications, Fourth Edition. Ronald M Atlasan Richard Bartha. Benjamin/Cumming Publishing Co., Inc., California.
  2. Microbial Ecology: A Conceptual Approach. 1980. JM Lynch and NJ Poole. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford.
  3. Biotechnology, Fourth Edition. 2004. John E Smith, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
  4. Industrial Microbiology: An Introduction. 2001. Michael J Waites, Neil L Morgan, John S Rockey and Gary Higton. Blackwell Science Ltd., London
  5. Microbial Biotechnology: Fundamentals of Applied Microbiology, Second Edition. 2007. Alexander N Glazer and Hiroshi Nikaido. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

 

Microbiol. 2303                Microbial Metabolism-I           2.0  CH           50 Marks

 

  1. Concept of metabolism: Catabolism and anabolism, important difference and relationships between these mechanisms.
  2. Cell bioenergetics : Free energy , energy production, energy coupling
  3. Carbohydrate metabolism: Different catabolic pathways, Embden-Meyerhof pathway, Hexose monophosphate shunt, Entner-Doudoroff pathway, TCA-cycle, glyoxalate cycle, methyl-glyoxal bypass, interlinkages of pathways.
  4. Anapleurotic reactions: Electron transport chain, oxidation reduction reaction, oxidative phosphorylation.
  5. Pathways for utilization of sugars other than glucose: Starch, galactose, maltose, sucrose, lactose, sorbitol, mannitol and aromatic compounds.
  6. Catabolic activities of aerobic heterotrophs: Degradation of polymers by exoenzymes.
  7. Growth of microbes with organic acids: Amino acid, aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, and chlorine compounds.

 

Books recommended:

  1. Microbial physiology – Moat Ag & Foster JF
  2. Bacterial Metabolism – Gottschalk G
  3. Microbiology, 5th Edition – Pelczer MJ Jr, Chan ECS & Krieg NR
  4. Lehninger Principle of Biochemistry – Nelson DL & Cox MM

 

 

Microbial. 2304               Clinical pathology              2.0 CH              50 Marks

 

  1. Theoretical aspects of different tests: Blood for TC, DC, HB, ESR, BT, CT.
  2. Different common tests in diagnostic microbiology: (a) Blood group and Rh factor, RBC fragility test. (b) Routine and culture sensitivity examination for urine (c) Routine examination and culture sensitivity of stool. (d) Acid- fast stains of sputum and other specimens. (e) Culture and sensitivity for pus, body fluid, eye and ear swabs samples. (f) Serological tests for diagnosis of infection (Widal, VDRL, ASO titer) (g) Estimation of blood glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol.

 

Books recommended:

  1. Diagnostics Molecular Microbiolgy: Principle and Applications- Prersing DH, Smith Fred TF & Wire TTJ
  2. Hand Book of Serodiagnosis in Infetious Diseases- Mathews R
  3. A manual of Laboratory and Diagnostics Tests – Fischbach F
  4. Diagnostics Immunology Laboratory Manual – Harbeck RJ &Giclas PC

 

Microbiol. 2305                        Practical                     2.0 CH                50 Marks

 

  1. Techniques of enumeration of microorganisms: Direct and Indirect Techniques.
  2. Nutritional and physical requirements: Growth of microorganisms using differentials and selective media, effect of temperature, pH and oxygen on microbial growth.
  3. Cultivation of aerobic bacteria: Bacterial growth curve determination by viable counts and OD method.
  4. Control of microbial growth by physical and chemical agents: Heat (moist and dry), osmotic pressure, radiation.
  5. Antimicrobial sensitivity test: Qualitative, Kirby-Bauer antimicrobial sensitivity test, drug synergism, phenol co-efficient, macro-dilution broth procedure and agar dilution procedure.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Text Book of Medical Laboratory Technology, Volume I & II, 2014 – Profullo and Godkar
  2. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries , New Edition,Volume I & II – Monica Cheesbrough
  3. Microbiology- A Laboratory Manual, 7th Edition – Cuppuccino & Sherman. Dorling Kindersely (India) pvt Ltd

 

 

Microbiol. 2301E         Mathematics and Statistics     2.0 CH              50 Marks

 

  1. Mathematics :
  2. A) Graphs and Gradients: Rectangular Co-ordinates, curve fitting gusting first degree equation in both variables. Determination of slop, Intercept and points of intersection. Equation of first degree in both X and Y (circle), Ellipse, Rectangular hyperbola etc.
  3. B) Exponential and logarithmic curves, graphical solution equation, graphical solution of simultaneous equation.
  4. C) Arithmetic progression, geometric progression, Permutation, Combination the binomial theorem and exponential theorem.

 

 

  1. Basic Statistics:

Introduction, Significant of digit and rounding of number, data collection, Sampling, Random and non- Random sampling, Sample size, Representative sample, Tabulation and graphical presentation of data, Measures of central tendency, Measures of dispersion, Standard deviation and standard error of mean, Coefficient of variation, Confidence limit, Probability and events, the normal, Binomial and poison distribution, Kurtosis and skeins, Hypothesis testing.

 

   Books recommended:

  1. Higher Algebra, S. Chand & Co., New Delhi 6th Edition,2014- Hall and Knight
  2. Higner Algebra, Macmilan India Ltd., Delhi 7th Edition, 2015- Bernard and Child
  3. Differential calculus, U.N. Dhar& Sons Private Ltd., Kolkata, 24th Edition,2014- Das & Mukherjee
  4. Differential calculus, Mohammad Brothers, Dhaka, 7th Edition,2015- Matin, M.A.
  5. Set theory and Related Topics, Mcgraw-Hill Co., New Delhi, 11th Edition, 20015- Lipschutz,S.
  6. Methods of Statistics – K. C. Bhuyan
  7. Introductory Statistics – Prem S. Mann
  8. Statistical Techniques in Business & Economics – Douglas A. Lind / William G. Marchal, Samuel A. Wathen

 

Microbial 2302E           General Chemistry Lab          2.0 CH                50 Marks

 

  1. Different experiments frequently practiced in chemical laboratory.
  2. Preparation of acid and bases: Standardization of acids and bases using indicator and pH meter.

Preparation of buffer solution of different pH and determination of pKa and pKb values.

Determination of titration curves of acids and bases.

  1. Qualitative and detection of organic compounds: a) element test, b) functional group test, c) melting point determination.

   Books recommended:

  1. A text book of practical physical chemistry – Fajans. K, Wust,J
  2. Practical physical chemistry – Alex, Findly
  3. Physical chemistry A Laboratory manual – Shailendra Kumar Sinha
  4. Practical physical chemistry – B. Viswanathan , P.S. Raghavan

 

­­

Microbial. 2303E          Biochemistry-I                        2.0 CH                   50 Marks

 

  1. Brief introduction to biomolecules: Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids.
  2. Carbohydrate metabolism: Glycolysis, TCA cycle, gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis and glycogenolysis, uronic acid and sorbitol pathway, importance of pentose phosphate pathway, regulation of carbohydrate metabolism.
  3. Metabolism of Nitrogenous compound: Nitrogen balance, biosynthesis of amino acids, catabolism of amino acids, conversion of amino acids to specialized products, assimilation of ammonia, urea cycle, metabolic disorder of amino acids-PKU, Parkinson’s disease, Alkaptonuria.
  4. Lipids: The chemistry of oxidation of fatty acids and energetic, biosynthesis of ketone bodies and their utilization, biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids and sphingolipids, control of lipid metabolism, essential fatty acids and eicosanoids (prostaglandin, thromboxane).

 

Books recommended:

  1. Principle of Biochemistry-Lehninger
  2. Essential of Biochemistry-Satyanarayana
  3. ABC of Bioichemistry- Mozammel Haque

 

 

Microbial.2306                  Viva- Voce                      1.0 CH             25 Marks

 

Topics of all the theoretical and practical courses of 3rd semester and other relevant matters will be included.

 

Second Year : 4th Semester

 

Course No. Course Name Credit Hours (CH)
Departmental Courses
Microbiol. 2401 Virology-I 2.0
Microbiol. 2402 Basic Microbial Genetics 2.0
Microbiol. 2403 Microbial Metabolism-II 2.0
Microbiol. 2404 Mycology 2.0
Microbiol. 2405 Food Microbiology- I 2.0
Microbiol. 2406 Practical 2.0
Extra-Departmental Courses    
Microbiol. 2401E Biostatistics 2.0
Microbiol. 2402E Biochemistry-II 2.0
Microbiol. 2407 Viva- voce 1.0
  Total 17.0

 

Microbial. 2401            Virology I              2.0 CH                          50 Marks

 

  1. Brief history and importance of Virology.
  2. Important terminology: Virus, viroids, virion and prions.
  3. Nature of virion: Morphology and chemical organization
  4. Nomenclature and classification: Bacteriophages, animal and plant viruses.
  5. Cultivation and quantification: Bacteriophages, animal and plant viruses.
  6. Bacteriophages: Genome organization and relocation of DNA and RNA bacteriophages, temperate and transposable phages
  7. Virus replication: Replication and gene expression of DNA and RNA viruses
  8. Common viral diseases: Plants, animals and humans
  9. Prevention and treatment of viral disease: Immunity to viral diseases, interferon induction and action, antiviral agents and viral vaccines.

 

   Books recommended:

 

  1. Microbiology: Concepts and Applications – Pelczer MJ Jr, Chan ECS & Krieg NR2
  2. Biology of Microorganisms, 13th Edition –Madigan MT, Martinko JM, Stahl DA, Clark PD
  3. Fields Virology, 6th Edition, Vol. I & II – Knipe DM, Howley PM

 

Microbiol.2402             Basic  Microbial  Genetics          2.0  CH         50  Marks                                            

 

  1. Introduction to Genetics: The Importance of Genetics; Divisions of Genetics; A Brief History of Genetics; Basic Concepts in Genetics.
  2. Basic Principles of Heredity: Mendel: The Father of Genetics: Mendel’s Success; Monohybrid Crosses; Dihybrid Crosses; Applications of Mendel’s Principles; Trihybrid Crosses; Genetic Terminology; Test Cross and Its Value.
  3. Extensions of Mendelism and Modifications of Basic Principles: Dominance Revisited; Multiple Alleles; Gene Interaction; Interaction between Sex and Heredity; Interaction Between Genes and Environment.
  4. Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance: Chromosome Structure; Sex Chromosomes; Sex Determination; Dosage Compensation of X-linked Genes; Changes in Chromosome Number and Structure; Genetic Disorders associated with Chromosomal Aberrations.
  5. Bacterial Transformation: Overview of Transformation; Mechanisms of Transformation; Transformation Analysis; Principle of Estimation of Linkage; Mapping by Transformation.
  6. Bacterial Conjugation: Lederberg and Tatum’s Experimental Design; Fertility Factor and Bacterial Conjugation; Mapping Genes by Conjugation Analysis; Molecular Mechanism of Bacterial Conjugation; Mechanism of DNA Transfer During Conjugation in Gram-Negative Bacteria; Sexduction in coli: F’ Conjugation.
  7. Bacterial Transduction: Transduction Analysis of Gene Transfer in Bacteria; Mapping by Generalized Transduction Analysis; Specialized Transduction.
  8. DNA – The Chemical Nature of the Gene: Characteristics of Genetic Material; The Molecular Basis of Heredity; The Structure of DNA: Genetic Implications of DNA Structure; Special Structures in DNA and RNA.

 

   Books recommended:

  1. Genetics: A Conceptual Approach, Fifth Edition. 2014. Benjamin A Pierce. WH Freeman Publishers, New York.
  2. Principles of Genetics, Sixth Edition. 2012. Snustad P and Simmons MJ. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., New York.
  3. Molecular Genetics of Bacteria, Third Edition. 2007. Larry Snyder and WendeyChampness. Americal Society for Microbiology, Washington DC.
  4. Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition. 2001. Robert H Tamarin. The McGraw−Hill Companies, New York.
  5. Genetics, Second Edition. 1984. Avers CJ. PWS Publishers, Boston.

 

Microbiol. 2403           Microbial Metabolism-II            2.0 CH                50 Marks

 

  1. Membrane transport: active, passive, facilitative and group translocation.
  2. Nitrogen Metabolism: Biological nitrogen fixation process and Regulation.
  3. Inorganic Nitrogen Metabolism: Assimilation of inorganic nitrogen.
  4. General reaction of amino acid: Decarboxylases, deaminase, trnasaminases and recemases, the Stickland reaction.
  5. Biosynthesis of purenes and pyridins and their regulation lipid biosynthesis.
  6. Biosynthesis of fatty acids: role of cofactors in fatty acid biosynthesis.
  7. Pathway to biosynthesis of mevolonate, sequalene and sterols.
  8. Autotrophic CO2 Fixation: mechanisms of photosynthesis in green, sulphur and cyanobacteria; physiological groups of aerobic chemolithotroph; hydrogen and CO oxidizers; ammonia, sulphur and ferrous ion oxidizers; facultative obligate chemolithotrophs.

 

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Microbial Physiology- Moat AG & Foster IF
  2. Bacterial Metabolism- Gotschalk G
  3. Microbiology : Concepts and Applications – Pelczer MJ Ir, Chan ECS & Krieg NR
  4. Lehninger principles of Biochemistry- Nelson DL & Cox MM

 

Microbiol. 2404                      Mycology                2.0CH                       50 Marks                                  

 

  1. Introduction to the Fungi: A brief history of mycology; What are fungi and organisms related to fungi
  2. Morphological Characteristics of Fungi: Structure of fungi; Characteristics of fungal organelles and function
  3. Fungal Taxonomy: Detailed description of major fungal subdivisions: Mastigomycotina, Zygomycotina, Basidiomycotina, Deuteromycotina, and Ascomycotina.
  4. Fungal Reproduction: Fungi genetics; Asexual and sexual reproduction; Growth and development of fungi; Life cycle of fungi.
  5. Fungi Physiology and Metabolism: Nutrition in fungi; Aerobic and anaerobic respiration in fungi.
  6. Laboratory Methods in Mycology: Collection and transportation of fungal samples; Storage and processing of samples for mycological studies; Media and growth requirements, Methods for microscopic examination; Colonial appearance and microscopic features, and Methods for laboratory identification.
  7. Fungal Diseases in Man, Animals and Plants: Medically important species; Fungal diseases in man – hypersensitivity, mycotoxicoses and mycoses; General aspects of fungal immunology and pathology; Antifungal therapeutic agents; Animal and plant pathogens
  8. General Economic Importance of Fungi to Man and the Environment: Fungal metabolites; Importance of fungi in agriculture (g., mycorrhiza), food industry, medicine (pharmaceuticals), environment, and biotechnology.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Illustrated Dictionary of Mycology.2000.Miguel Ulloa and Richard T Hanlin.Amer Phytopathological Society.
  2. Fungi: Biology and Applications, Second Edition. 2011. Kevin Kavanagh. Wiley.
  3. 21st Century Guidebook to Fungi. David Moore, Geoffrey D Robson and Anthony PJ Trinci.Cambridge University Press
  4. Medical Mycology: A Self-Instructional Text, Second Edition. 1997. Kathleen S BlevinsandMartha E Kern. A. Davis Company.
  5. Medically Important Fungi: A Guide to Identification. 2011. Davise H Larone. American Society for Microbiology.
  6. Clinical Mycology, Second Edition. 2009. Elias J Anaissie, Michael R McGinnisandMichael A Pfaller, Churchill Livingstone
  7. Applied Mycology,First Edition. 2009. MahendraRai and Paul Dennis Bridge. CABI.

 

Microbial. 2405         Food Microbiology-I                   2.0 CH                   50 Marks

 

  1. Basic concepts: Food and food types – traditional, processed and fast foods.
  2. Microorganisms in food: Usual levels of microorganism in different foods, drinks and beverages.
  3. Beneficial and harmful aspects of microbes in food: desired level and types of microbes in processed foods, undesired microbes interfering preparation, quality and often responsible for food borne disease.
  4. Factors influencing microbial growth in foods: Temperature, pH, aW, oxidation reduction potential, nutrient content, inhibitory substance and their structures, composition of food materials, combined effects of factors.
  5. Contamination and preservation , and spoilage of different kinds of foods: Cereal and cereal products , sugar and sugar products ,vegetable and fruits , meat and meats products, fish and other sea foods , eggs , breads, poultry , milk and milk products, canned foods.
  6. Microbes determining the foods quality and their products in foods: Yeast culture, molds.
  7. Principles of food preservation: Preservation by high temperature, low temperature, dying, using foods additives/preservatives, and radiation.
  8. Determination of microorganisms: Sampling, laboratory examination- microscopic and cultural.
  9. Preparation of some fermented foods: Dairy products cheese, yogurt, cabbage, cucumber and other products, oriental fermented foods.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Food Microbiology: An Introduction, 2008, Thomas J. Montville and Karl Matthews, American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Press, Washington, DC
  2. Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 2001, Edited by Michael P. Doyle, Larry R. Beuchat, and Thomas J. Montville, 2nd edition, American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Press, Washington, DC
  3. Food Microbiology. 2nd Edition. 2000. M.R. Adams and M.O. Moss. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge. 2. Modern Food Microbiology. 6th Edition. 2000. J. M. Jay. Chapman & Hall, New York. 3. Fundamental Food Microbiology. 2nd Edition. 2000. B. Ray. CRC Press. New York. USA.

 

Microbiol. 2406               Practical                           2.0CH                     50 Marks

 

  1. Microbiology of water: Standard qualitative analysis of water, most probable number technique (MPN) and quantitative analysis of water by membrane filter method.
  2. Microbiology of food: Methylene blue reductase test, Microbiological analysis of milk and dairy products and other foods.
  3. Fungal study: Study of different fungal isolates-yeasts and molds, laboratory diagnosis of common fungal infection.
  4. Analytical techniques: Determination total carbohydrate by phenol sulphuric acid method, estimation of reducing sugar by Somogyi-Nelson method and dinitrosalicylic acid method, estimation of protein by Lowery method.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Text Book of Medical Laboratory Technology, Volume I & II, 2014 – Profullo and Godkar
  2. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries , New Edition,Volume I & II – Monica Cheesbrough
  3. Microbiology- A Laboratory Manual, 7th Edition – Cuppuccino & Sherman. Dorling Kindersely (India) pvt Ltd

 

Microbial.2401E             Biostatistics                  2.0CH                            50 Marks

 

  1. Graphical and diagrammatic representation: graphs and diagrams.
  2. Measures of central tendency: Arithmetic mean, geometric mean, harmonic mean median and mode.
  3. Measures of dispersion: range mean deviation, variance, co-efficient of variance, standard deviation. Moments, skew ness and kurtosis.
  4. Probability distribution: The normal, binomial and poisson distribution, derivation, means and variances.
  5. The basic idea and significance test: simple significance test based on the normal distribution, comparison with a known standard, comparison of means of two large samples.
  6. The correlation measurement: general notion of correlation, calculation of correlation co-efficient.
  7. Regression analysis: Basic idea of regression, calculation of regression coefficient, standard error and significance test. Partial correlation and multiple regression with two or more than two independent variances.
  8. Correlation and regression analysis: student’s T-test, the X2-test, the F-test, elements of ANOVA,
  9. Introduction to factorial experiments: Principle basic ideas, notation in 2n factorial, scope of more advanced designs.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Methods of Statistics – K. C. Bhuyan
  2. Introductory Statistics – Prem S. Mann
  3. Statistical Techniques in Business & Economics – Douglas A. Lind / William G. Marchal, Samuel A. Wathen

 

Microbial.2402E        Biochemistry-II                2.0 CH                      50 Marks

 

  1. Fundamentals of molecular biology: Gene, genome, genotype, phenotype and nucleic acid (DNA, RNA).
  2. Nitrogenous bases: Purine biosynthesis, purine neucleotide interconversion, pyrimidine biosynthesis and formation of deoxyriboneucleotides.
  3. Biosynthesis of nucleic acids: Brief introduction to the genetic organization of mammalian genome (chromosome packaging), alteration and rearrangements of genetics materials/ chromosomal anomaly.
  4. Gene Expression: Central dogma of molecular biology, biosynthesis of DNA and its replication, DNA repair mechanism, transcription.
  5. Genetic code and protein synthesis: Genetic code, components of protein synthesis and inhibitors of gene expression.

 

Books recommended:

  1. Principle of Biochemistry-Lehninger
  2. Essential of Biochemistry-Satyanarayana
  3. ABC of Bioichemistry- Mozammel Haque
  4. Cell-the molecular approach— Cooper

 

 

 

Microbial.2407            Viva-voce                1.0 CH                             25 Marks

 

Topics of all the theoretical and practical courses of 4th semester and other relevant matters will be included.

 

Third Year: 5th Semester

 

Course No. Course Name Credit Hours (CH)
Departmental Courses
Microbiol. 3501 Virology-II 3.0
Microbiol. 3502 Molecular Genetics 3.0
Microbiol. 3503 Agricultural Microbiology 2.0
Microbiol. 3504 Fermentation Technology 2.0
Microbiol. 3505 Food Microbiology- II 2.0
Microbiol. 3506 Practical 2.0
Microbiol. 3507 Computer Data Analysis 2.0
Microbiol. 3508 Viva-voce 1.0
  Total 17.0

 

 

Microbiol. 3501            Virology-II                    3.0CH                   75 Marks

 

  1. Overview of animal viruses: different classes of plant, animal and human
  2. Viral infection of respiratory tract: Pathogenesis, Epidemiology and transmission of common cold, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, chicken pox and shingles.
  3. Viral infection of gastrointestinal tract: Rota virus, Norovirus, Adenovirus, Sapovirus and Aichi virus.
  4. Viral infection of central nervous system (CNS) : Rabies, Nipa, Madcow disease, Japanese encephalitis
  5. Emerging and specially emphasized Viruses: Ebola virus, Nipah Virus, Dengue virus, Yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Rabies, Madcow and Zika virus.
  6. Hepatitis Virus: Types of Hepatitis Virus, Hepatitis B Virus’s structure; genome organization; replication; pathogenesis; epidemiology; transmission; prevention and diagnosis.
  7. Influenza Viruses: General properties; antigenic shift and drift; pathogenesis; epidemiology.
  8. DNA oncogenic viruses: EBV-structure and disease production, tumor suppressor gene.
  9. RNA oncogenic viruses: HTLV-genome structure and replication, T-cell transformation.
  10. Non-oncogenic retrovirus: HIV-structure, genome organization, transmission and epidemiology, disease pathogenicity, treatment and vaccine approaches.
  11. Uses of retroviruses: gene therapy and genetic engineering.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Microbiology: Concepts and Applications – Pelczer MJ Jr, Chan ECS & Krieg NR2
  2. Biology of Microorganisms, 13th Edition –Madigan MT, Martinko JM, Stahl DA, Clark PD
  3. Fields Virology, 6th Edition, Vol. I & II – Knipe DM, Howley PM
  4. Principles of virology, 3rd Edition-Flint SJ, Enquist LW, Recaniello VR, Skalka AM

 

Microbiol. 3502                 Molecular genetics                      3.0 CH       75 Marks

 

  1. Introduction to Molecular Genetics: Characteristics of Genetic Material; The Importance of Genetics; Divisions of Genetics; The Rise of Modern Genetics; Twentieth-Century Genetics; The Future of Genetics; The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology.
  2. DNA Replication: The Central Problem of Replication; Semiconservative Replication; Modes of Replication; Requirements of Replication; Direction of Replication; The Mechanism of Replication of Bacterial DNA; Mechanism of Replication of Eukaryotic DNA; Replication in Archaea.
  3. RNA Molecules: The Chemical Nature of RNAs; Classes of RNAs; Structure of mRNA, tRNA and rRNA; Noncoding Intervening Sequences or Introns; Alternative Processing Pathways.
  4. Transcription and Post-Transcriptional Modification: Transcription of RNA from DNA; The Process of Bacterial Transcription; The Process of Eukaryotic Transcription; Post-Transcriptional Processing of mRNA, tRNA and rRNA.
  5. The Process of Translation: The Genetic Code; Stages of Translation Process; The Overall Process of Protein Synthesis; RNA–RNA Interactions in Translation; Polyribosomes; The Posttranslational Modifications of Proteins; Translation and Antibiotics.
  6. Control of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes: General Principles of Gene Regulation; Genes and Regulatory Elements; Gene Regulation in Bacterial Cells; Operon Structure; Negative and Positive Control; Inducible and Repressible Operons; The Lac Operon of coli; Catabolite Repression; The Trp Operon of E. coli.
  7. Gene Mutations and Repair Mechanisms: Introduction; Classification of Mutation; Genotypic Effects of Mutations; Phenotypic Effects of Mutations: Mutation Rates; Causes of Mutations; Molecular Mechanisms of Mutations. DNA Repair Mechanisms.

 

Books Recommended

  1. Genetics: A Conceptual Approach, Fifth Edition. 2014. Benjamin A Pierce. WH Freeman & Company, New York.
  2. Principles of Genetics, Sixth Edition. 2012. Snustad P and Simmons MJ. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., New York.

 

 

Microbial. 3503           Agriculture Microbiology        2.0 CH               50 Marks

 

  1. Introduction and Historical Developments in Agricultural Microbiology: Contributions of Beijerinck, Winogradsky, Fleming and Waksman.
  2. Distribution and Importance of Soil Microorganisms: Factors influencing the activities of soil microorganisms.
  3. Carbon cycle: Role of soil microorganisms in the decomposition of organic matter; Importance of C: N ratio; Humus formation.
  4. Nitrogen cycle: Mineralization; Ammonification; Nitrification and denitrification.
  5. Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Symbiotic and non-symbiotic microorganisms
  6. Microbial Transformation of Phosphorus: Rhizosphere and its importance; RS ratio.
  7. Interrelationship between Microorganisms: Beneficial and harmful relationships; Mycorrhizae; Phosphobacteria.
  8. Biofertilizers:Rhizobium, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Gluconacetobacter and Azorhizobium, Cyanobacteria, Azolla – PGPR; Mass production of biofertilizers and quality control; Bioconversion of agricultural wastes for compost making.
  9. Important Diseases of Crop Plants and Their Management: Pest and disease management; Chemical pesticides; Microbiological control of plant pathogens.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Introduction to Soil Microbiology, 2nd Edition. 1991. Martin Alexander. Krieger Pub Co.
  2. Agricultural Microbiology. 1992. G Rangaswami and DJ Bagyaraj. Asia Publishing House, New Delhi.
  3. Biofertilizer – Technology, Marketing and Usage. 1995. MR Motsara, P Bhattacharyya and B Srivastava. Fertilizer Development & Consultant Organization, New Delhi.
  4. Biofertilizers in Agriculture and Agroforestry. 1999. NS Subba Rao. Oxford & IBH, New Delhi.
  5. Soil Microorganisms and Plant Growth. 1995. NS Subba Rao. Oxford & IBH, New Delhi.

 

Microbial. 3504            Fermentation Technology      2.0 CH               50 Marks

 

  1. Introduction to Fermentation Processes: Historical Highlights of Fermentation Processes; Typical Operations of a Fermentation Process; Fermentation Methods; Types of Fermentation Products.
  2. Industrially Important Microorganisms: Fermentation Products and Producers; Isolation of Suitable Microorganisms from the Environment; Culture Collections; Industrial Strains and Strain Improvement; Strain Stability.
  3. The Development of Inocula for Industrial Fermentations: Choice of Inoculum Culture Medium; Quantity of Inoculum; Inoculum-Development Programme; Criteria for the Transfer of Inoculum; Development of Inocula for Yeast, Bacterial and Mycelial Processes; The Aseptic Inoculation of Plant Fermenters.
  4. Media for Industrial Fermentations: Establish the Most Suitable Fermentation Medium; Medium Formulation; Medium Ingredients; Addition of Precursors and Metabolic Regulators to Media; Oxygen Requirements; Foaming and Antifoams.
  5. Sterilization Methods: Consequences Arises Due to Contamination; Expressions of Resistance; Sterility Assurance Level (SAL); Sterilization Considerations; Types of Reaction Contribute to the Loss of Nutrient Quality During Sterilization; The Methods of Batch Sterilization; The Methods of Continuous Sterilization; Sterilization Methods.
  6. Fermentation Systems: Brief History; Basis Function of a Fermenter for Microbial Culture; Fermenter Design and Construction; Aseptic Operation and Containment; Control of Chemical and Physical Conditions; Fermenter Control and Monitoring; Operating Modes of Industrial Fermentations; Solid-Substrate Fermentations; Fermentation Process Development.
  7. Instrumentation and Control of Fermentation: Methods of measuring process variables – Temperature, Flow measurement and control, Pressure measurement, Pressure control Safety valves, Agitator shaft power, Rate of stirring, Foam sensing and control, Weight, Microbial biomass, Measurement and control of dissolved oxygen, Inlet and exit-gas analysis, pH measurement and control, Redox, Carbon dioxide electrodes; On-line analysis of other chemical factors; Control systems; Combinations of methods of control; Computer applications in fermentation technology.
  8. Downstream Processing: Upstream vs. Downstream Processing; Factors Influencing the Downstream Processing; Unit Processes in Downstream Processing; Cell Harvesting; Cell Disruption; Product Recovery; Distillation; Finishing Steps; Inclusion Bodies and the Role of Genetic Engineering in Downstream Processing.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Industrial Microbiology: An Introduction. 2001. Michael J Waites, Neil L Morgan, John S Rockey and Gary Higton. Blackwell Science Ltd., London.
  2. Principles of Fermentation Technology, 2nd 2003. Peter F Stanbury, Allan Whitaker and Stephen J Hall. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.
  3. Introduction to Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering by AJ Nair. 2008. Infinity Science Press LLC, Hingham, Massachusetts.
  4. Biotechnology, 4th 2004. John E Smith, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

 

Microbial. 3505              Food Microbiology- II                2.0CH                50 Marks

 

  1. Microbial ecology of foods: Essential and perspective, food-borne infection and intoxication, recent trends and forecast for the future.
  2. Introduction to microorganisms: Molds, yeasts, bacteria.
  3. Microbes responsible for food borne diseases (Gram-positive aerobes): Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Yearsinia enterolitica, Listeria monocytogenes.
  4. Microbes responsible for food borne disease (Gram-positive anaerobes): Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens.
  5. Microbes responsible for food borne disease (Gram-negative aerobes): Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonus hydrophilia, Escerichia coli, Plesiomonas shigelloides.
  6. Food poisoning: Salmonella infection, new or less common food-borne infections and intoxication’s –Campylobacter enteritis, mycotoxin contamination.
  7. Fish poisoning: Microbial spoilage of fish, ciguatera poisoning and gastro-enteritis of viral or unknown antilogy, hepatitis.
  8. Mechanisms of action of food preservation procedures: Water relations of cells and heat resistance of bacterial endospores, water-relation of cell to low aw, mechanism of vegetative cell resistance to low pH values, mechanism of action of preservatives.
  9. Combating food poisoning: Factors important for outbreaks of food poisoning, economic impact of food poisoning/ contamination, methods for detection food poisoning toxins, food and sanitation-control and inspection.
  10. Foods Microbiology: A scenario of twenty first century, application of genetic engineering for food and additives.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Quality Control in the Food Industry, Vol. I – Herschdoerfer SM
  2. Microbiology of Frozen Foods – R.K. Robinson, Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd., 1985
  3. Food Microbiology, 4th Edition – William Carroll Frazier, Dennis C. Westhoff

 

 

Microbial. 3506                    Practical                 2.0 CH                           50 Marks

 

  1. Relationship of free oxygen to microbial growth: Anaerobic culture of bacteria.
  2. Degradation of polymer by exoenzyme: Amylase, protease.
  3. Effect of antimicrobials on growth: Action of antiseptics, disinfectants, UV light and photo reactivation and anti-metabolites.
  4. Isolation, identification, and antibiotic sensitivity of pathogens: Stool, urine, pus, blood, CSF samples.
  5. Preparation of cell products: Preparation of bacterial whole cell extract, preparation of outer membrane protein.
  6. Study of gene expression: Cultivation of transformed coli cells and extraction of the product.
  7. Examination and observation: Virus infected plants, animals and humans.
  8. Cultivation and enumeration of bacteriophages: Methods, isolation of bacteriophages from raw sewage, isolation of TMV from infected plants, detection of virus from patient’s serum by serological methods.
  9. Immunological experiments: Collection of serum and plasma, separation of blood leucocytes, phagocytosis by neutrophils.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Text Book of Medical Laboratory Technology, Volume I & II, 2014 – Profullo and Godkar
  2. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries , New Edition,Volume I & II – Monica Cheesbrough
  3. Microbiology- A Laboratory Manual, 7th Edition – Cuppuccino & Sherman. Dorling Kindersely (India) pvt Ltd

 

 

Microbial.3507           Computer Data Analysis               2.0 CH               50 Marks

 

  1. Introduction: Basic organization, type and brief history of computer, hardware and software.
  2. General review: Input and output media devices, organization of central processing unit, memory organization, storage device.
  3. Operating system: DOS, Windows, MacOS, Unix.
  4. Application programmes: Word processing (MS word), MS Excel.
  5. Statistics analysis: MS Excel, introduction to statistical package (SPSS).
  6. Research using computer: Methodology, hypothesis, sampling, collection and analysis, frequency table, contingency table analysis, pearson correlation, regression analysis, T- test, ANOVA.
  7. Graphic design: (Photoshop, chimera, illustrator), EPI-info.
  8. Computer and communication: Basics of networking and internet, introduction to TCP/IP, Mail, FTP, Telent, Modem, Router, WWW, Medline search.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Computer Fundamental – Dr. Lutfar Rahman and Dr. Aamgir Hossain
  2. Computer Fundamental – Schaum’s Outline Series
  3. Introduction to Computer – Peter Norton

 

Microbial. 3508                 Viva-voce                 1.0 CH                               25 Marks

 

Topics of all theoretical and practical courses of 5th semester and other relevant matters will be included.

 

 

 

Third Year : 6th Semester

 

Course No. Course Name Credit Hours (CH)

 

Departmental Courses
Microbiol. 3601 Immunology-I 2.0
Microbiol. 3602 Medical Microbiology-I 2.0
Microbiol. 3603 Industrial Microbiology 3.0
Microbiol. 3604 Enzymology 2.0
Microbiol. 3605 Pharmaceutical Microbiology 2.0
Microbiol. 3606 Practical 2.0
Microbiol. 3607 Viva-voce 1.0
  Total 14.0

 

 

Microbiol.3601                      Immunology-I                  2.0CH                50 Marks

 

  1. History and Introduction to Immunology: History and development of immunology, introduction to immune system, basic concept of innate and adaptive immunity, cellular and humoral immunity.
  2. Non Specific immunity: Mechanical barrier (Skin and mucous membrane), Chemical barrier, phagocytes and phagocytosis, development of phagocytic cell, microbial evasion of phagocyotosis, inflammation, Complement system, Natural Killer Cell, Moderate fever.
  3. Specific immunity: To intracellular and extracellular bacteria, parasitic infection.
  4. Lymphoid Systems: Primary and secondary lymphoid tissues, primary lymphoid organs, secondary lymphoid organs and tissues.
  5. Cell involved in Immune Response: General features and functions of lymphoid cells, mononuclear phagocytes, antigen presenting cells, polymorphs, mast cell, platelets.
  6. Antigens: General properties of antigens, antigenic determinants, haptens.
  7. Membrane Receptors for Antigens: B cell surface receptors for antigens, T cell receptors (TCR major histocompatibility complex (MHC), antigens structure, functions of MHC class I and MHC class II molecules, gene map of MHC antigens, processing and presentation of peptides by MHC molecules, antigen recognition, antigen-antibody interaction, forces of antigen-antibody binding, haplotype restriction of T cell reactivity.
  8. Lymphocyte activation: Interaction of T lymphocytes and APC, signals for T cell activation cell response to thymus dependent and -independent antigens, B cell activation by surface Ig and T cell.
  9. Immunoglobulin: Basic structure and function of immunoglobulin, classes and subclasses, physiological properties, distribution and functions of different classes sand subclasses of immunoglobulin, memory B cell, genetic basis of antibody heterogenecity, antibody class switching.
  10. Results of antigen-antibody binding: Opsonization, neutralization, activation of complement, inflammation, agglutination and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.
  11. Immunological techniques: Precipitation, agglutination, enzyme link immunosorben assay (ELISA), radio-immunoassay (RIA), immunoelectrophoresis, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence and activated cell sorter. (FACS)
  12. Monoclonal Antibody: production of hybridoma, screening, cloning and large-scale production of monoclonal antibodies.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Immunology, 5th Edition- Roitt I
  2. Roitt’s essential Immunology- Delves P, Martin S, Burton D & Roitt
  3. Advance Immunology- Male DK, Champion B & Cooke A
  4. Text Book of Immunology-Barrett TJ
  5. Immunology: An Introduction- Tizard IR

 

 

Microbiol. 3602            Medical Microbiology-I              2.0CH            50 Marks

 

  1. Microbe-Human Interactions: Infection and Disease; The Human Host – The Host-Parasite Relationship; The Normal Flora – Acquiring Resident Flora, Initial Colonization of the Newborn and Indigenous Flora of Specific Regions; Studies with Germ-free Animals.
  2. The Progress of an Infection: An Overview of the Events in Infection; The Portal of Entry; The Size of the Inoculum; Mechanisms of Invasion and Establishment of the Pathogen – How Pathogens Attach, How Virulence Factors Contribute to Tissue Damage, Establishment, Spread, and Pathologic Effects; Signs and Symptoms of Diseases; The Portal of Exit; The Persistence of Microbes and Pathogenic Conditions.
  3. Factors Affecting the Course of Infection and Disease: Pathogenicity and Virulence; Virulence Factors – Exoenzymes, Toxigenicity and Antiphagocytic Factors.
  4. Effects on Target Organ/Spread of Infection: Patterns of Infection – Incubation period, Prodromal, Period of invasion, Convalescent period; Type of Infections/Diseases – Localized, Systemic, Focal, Mixed, Primary, Secondary, Septicemia and bacteremia, Acute, Chronic and Subacute Infections
  5. Epidemiology – The Study of Disease in Populations: Tracking Disease in the Population; Epidemiologic Statistics – Frequency of Cases; Frequency of Disease – Endemic, Sporadic, Epidemic and Pandemic; Reservoirs and Sources of Infectious Agents – Living Reservoirs and Nonliving Reservoirs; Carrier; The Acquisition and Transmission of Infectious Agents – Patterns of Transmission in Communicable Diseases; Nosocomial Infections; Koch’s Postulates to Determine Etiology.
  6. The Nature of Host Defenses: The Three Levels of Host Defenses; Immunity/Immunology; Circulatory System: Blood and Lymphatics; Functions of Leukocytes; Lymphatic System; Generalized Immune Reactions – Inflammatory Response and Phagocytosis; Important Chemical Defenses – Interferon (IFN) and Complement; Characteristics of Acquired Immunities – Immunocompetent individuals, Humoral Immunity and Cell-Mediated Immunity.
  7. The Cocci of Medical Importance: Gram-Positive Cocci – Staphylococcus; Streptococcus and Enterococcus; Gram-Negative Cocci – Neisseria.
  8. The Gram-Positive Bacilli of Medical Importance: Endosporeformers – Bacillus and Clostridium; Non-spore-forming Rods – Listeria, Corynebacterium, Propionibacterium and Mycobacterium; Diseases Caused by Actinomycetes – Actinomyces and Nocardia.
  9. The Gram-Negative Bacilli of Medical Importance: Aerobic Rods – Pseudomonas, Brucella, Francisella, Bordetella and Legionella; Facultative Anaerobic Rods – Escherichia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, and Citrobacter; Opportunists – Proteus, Morganella and Providencia; True Enteric pathogens – Salmonella and Shigella; True Pathogens in Yersinia, Pasteurella and Haemophilus genera; Nonenteric Pathogens – Pasteurella and Haemophilus.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Jawetz, Melnick, &Adelberg’s Medical Microbiology, Twenty-Sixth Edition. 2013. Geo F Brooks, Karen C Carroll, Janet S Butel, Stephen A Morse and Timothy A Mietzner. McGraw Hill Medical, New York.
  2. Bailey & Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology, Twelfth Edition. 2007. Betty A Forbes, Daniel F Sahm and Alice S Weissfeld. Mosby, St. Louise.
  3. Bacterial Pathogenesis: A Molecular Approach, Third Edition by Brenda A Wilson, Abigail A Salyers, Dixie D Whitt and Malcolm E Winkler. 2011. ASM Press, American Society of Microbiology, Washington DC.
  4. Foundations in Microbiology, Eighth Edition. Kathleen Park TalaroandArthur Talaro. The McGraw−Hill Companies, Inc., New York.
  5. Prescott’s Microbiology, Eighth Edition. 2010. Joanne Willey, Linda Sherwood and Chris Woolverton. The McGraw−Hill Companies, New York.

 

Microbial. 3603                   Industrial Microbiology         3.0 CH              75 Marks

 

  1. Industrial Microbiology: Historical development, importance.
  2. Microorganisms and industry: Types of microorganisms used in industry, types of industries using microorganisms, advantages of industrial use of microbes for large scale production.
  3. Major classes of products and processes: Microbial cells, macromolecules, primary and secondary metabolites.
  4. Microorganisms of industrial importance: Yeasts, molds, bacteria and actinomycetes.
  5. Screening and selection of microorganisms: Microbial biotechnology in industry – a common outline for useful microbial products.
  6. Fermentation: Types of fermentation, methods of ethanol fermentation, use of ethanol.
  7. Microbiological production processes of food and beverages: alcohol, red wine, beer, amino acids (food additive), vinegar, breaker yeast, SCP, MBP, fermented sausage.
  8. Production of industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals: organic acid (acetic acid, citric acid, lactic acid), solvents (distilled spirits/alcohol, acetone, butanol), antibiotics, penicillin, sterols and enzymes).
  9. Control and management of microorganisms in foods and beverages: Basic concept, desired and undesired levels of microbes in different foods and drinks, preservation of foods and drinks, use of microbes in foods and drinks, technique of maintenance of starter culture, stock culture maintenance.
  10. Important terminology: bioreactor, upstream processing, down steam processing, biogas, anoxic decomposition.
  11. Microbes in mining: Advantage of microbial process, brief explanation of microbial use, examples.
  12. Practical visit to industries: Observation and evaluation of process control and microbial explanation of in prepared of foods from the view point of microbiology.

Books Recommended:

  1. Industrial Microbiology – Miller BM &Litsky w
  2. Prescott and Dunn’s Industrial Microbiology – Reed G
  3. Biotechnology Vol I – Rehm HJ & Reed G
  4. Industrial Application of Microbiology – Riviere J
  5. Applied Biochemistry and Bioengineering – Wingard LB Jr, Katchalski- katzir E &Goldster L
  6. Comprehensive Biotechnology, Vol. I-IV – MooYoung M

 

Microbial. 3604                    Enzymology                  2.0CH                       50 Marks

 

  1. Enzymes – The Basic Concept: Enzymes as Biocatalysts; The Importance of Enzymes; Commercially Useful Enzymes; Characteristics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions; How Enzymes Work; Nomenclature and Classification of Enzymes.
  2. Protein Structure and Activity and Chemical Nature of Enzymes: Protein Functions and Properties; Protein Structure; Protein Binding Sites; Chemical Nature of Enzymes; Enzymes and Chemical Energy.
  3. The Control of Enzyme-Mediated Reactions and Bioenergetics: Effect of temperature and pH; Cofactors and Coenzymes; Concentration of Enzyme and Substrate; Stimulatory and Inhibitory Effects; Metabolic Pathways; Bioenergetics.
  4. The Mechanism of Enzyme Action: Free-Energy Change of a Chemical Reaction; Free Energy is a Useful Thermodynamic Function for Understanding Enzymes; Principles that Explain the Catalytic Power and Specificity of Enzymes; Catalysis Occurs at the Active Site; Specific Catalytic Groups Contribute to Catalysis.
  5. Enzyme Kinetics: Enzyme Kinetics as an Approach to Understanding Mechanism; Kinetic Parameters are Used to Compare Enzyme Activities; Relationship between Substrate Concentration and Reaction Rate; The Michaelis-Menten Kinetics; Interpreting Vmax and Km; Lineweaver–Burk Double-Reciprocal Plot; Reaction Order.
  6. Enzyme Inhibition: Reversible Inhibition – Mechanism and Quantitatively Analysis of Competitive Inhibition, Uncompetitive Inhibition, Mixed Inhibition and Noncompetitive Inhibition; Mechanism of Irreversible Inhibition; Mechanism-Based Inactivators; Uses of Inhibitors; Regulatory Enzymes
  7. Enzyme Assays and Enzyme Purification: Types of Enzyme Assays; Factors to Control in Enzyme Assays; Enzyme Units and Specific Activities; Turnover Number; General Purification Scheme.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, Fifth Edition -David L Nelson and Michael M Cox. 2008. WH Freeman and Company, New York.
  2. Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry, 30th Edition – Victor Rodwell, David Bender, Kathleen M Botham, Peter J Kennelly, P Anthony Weil. 2015.The McGraw-Hill Companies, New York.
  3. Biochemistry, 6th Edition-Jeremy M Berg, John L Tymoczko and LubertStryer. 2007. WH Freeman and Company, New York.
  4. Biochemical Calculations, 2nd Edition- Irwin H Segel. 1976. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York.
  5. Vander’s Human Physiology: The Mechanisms of Body Function, 12th Edition – Eric P Widmaier, Hershel Raff and Kevin T Strang. 2010. The McGraw−Hill Companies, New York.
  6. Human Physiology, 13thEdition – Stuart Ira Fox. 2014. The McGraw-Hill Companies, New York.

 

Microbial. 3605       Pharmaceutical Microbiology           2.0CH        50 Marks

 

  1. Pharmaceuticals, Biologics and Biopharmaceuticals: Introduction to Pharmaceutical Products; Biopharmaceuticals and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology; History of the Pharmaceutical Industry; the Age of Biopharmaceuticals; Biopharmaceuticals – Current Status and Future Prospects.
  2. Microbial Spoilage of Pharmaceutical Products and Contamination Control: Introduction; Spoilage—Chemical and Physicochemical Deterioration of Pharmaceuticals; Hazard to Health; Sources and Control of Contamination; Factors Determining the Outcome of a Medicament-Borne Infection; Preservation of Medicines Using Antimicrobial Agents: Basic Principles; Quality Assurance and the Control of Microbial Risk in Medicines.
  3. Sterile Pharmaceutical Products: Introduction; Types of Sterile Product; Sterilization Considerations; Sterilization Methods – Heat Sterilization, Gaseous Sterilization, Radiation Sterilization, Filtration Sterilization, New Sterilization Technologies – High-Intensity Light and Low Temperature Plasma.
  4. Sterilization Control and Sterility Assurance: Bioburden Determinations; Environmental Monitoring; Validation and In-Process Monitoring of Sterilization Procedures; Sterility Testing; The Role of Sterility Testing; Quality Control and Quality Assurance of Sterile Products; Measurement of Bacterial Endotoxins and Other pyrogens.
  5. Microbiological Assays of Antibiotics, Vitamins and Amino Acids: Introduction – Importance and Usefulness, Principle, Methodologies and Present Status of Assay Methods; Variants in Assay Profile – Calibration of Assay, Precision of Assay, Accuracy of Assay, Evaluation of Assay Performance; Types of Microbiological (Microbial) Assays – Agar Plate Diffusion Assays, Rapid-Reliable-Reproducible Microbial Assay Methods; Radioenzymatic Assays; Analytical Methods for Microbial Assays; Examples of Pharmaceutical Microbial Assays; Assay of Antibiotics by Turbidimetric (or Nephelometric) Methods.
  6. The Drug Development Process: Introduction; Discovery of Biopharmaceuticals; The Impact of Genomics and Related Technologies upon Drug Discovery; Gene Chips; Proteomics; Structural Genomics; Pharmacogenetics; Initial Product Characterization; Patenting; Delivery of Biopharmaceuticals; Preclinical Studies; Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics; Toxicity Studies; The Role and Remit of Regulatory Authorities.

 

Books Recommended

  1. Pharmaceutical Biotechnology-Concepts and Applications, 2nd Edition.Gary Walsh. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex.
  2. Hugo and Russell’s PharmaceuticalMicrobiology, 8th Edition. Stephen P Denyer, Norman A Hodges, Sean P Gorman and Brendan Gilmore. Blackwell Science Ltd., Massachusetts.
  3. PharmaceuticalMicrobiology. Ashutosh Kar. New Age International (P) Ltd. Publishers, New Delhi.
  4. Molecular Biotechnology: Principles and Applications of Recombinant DNA, 4th Edition. Bernard R Glick, Jack J Pasternak and Cheryl L Patten. 2010. ASM Press, American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC.
  5. Bacterial Pathogenesis: A Molecular Approach, 3rd Edition. Brenda A Wilson, Abigail A Salyers, Dixie D Whitt and Malcolm E Winkler. 2011. ASM Press, American Society of Microbiology, Washington DC.
  6. Introduction to Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering. AJ Nair. 2008. Infinity Science Press LLC, Hingham, Massachusetts.
  7. Bailey & Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology, 12th edition, Year 2007 by Betty A Forbes, Daniel F Sahm and Alice S Weissfeld. Mosby, St. Louise.

 

 

Microbiol. 3607                      Practical                       2.0 CH                     50 Marks

 

  1. Study of microbial population: Soil, rhizosphere and rhizosphore, denitrification and ammonification, nitrogen fixation tests.
  2. Quantitative and qualitative examination of milk: bacteria in raw and pasteurized milk, methylene blue reduction test.
  3. Microbiological analysis: Fermented and non-fermented foods.
  4. Production of molasses citric acid vinegar: Culture, extraction, purification.
  5. Determination properties of enzymes: Molecular weight (gel electrophoresis), substrate specificity, enzyme activity (qualitative and quantitative) and kinetic properties, effect of activators (enzyme, cofactors) and inhibitors on enzymes.
  6. Microbiological assay: Pharmaceutical raw materials, solids, ointments and oral liquids, potency of antibiotics.
  7. Detection and identification of microbial pathogens: Poultry (Salmonella sp), frozen and fish.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Text Book of Medical Laboratory Technology, Volume I & II, 2014 – Profullo and Godkar
  2. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries , New Edition,Volume I & II – Monica Cheesbrough
  3. Microbiology- A Laboratory Manual, 7th Edition – Cuppuccino & Sherman. Dorling Kindersely (India) pvt Ltd

 

Microbiol. 3608                       Viva-voce                         1.0 CH                 25 Marks

 

 

Topics of all the theoretical and practical courses of 6th semester and other relevant matters will be included.

 

Fourth Year: 7th Semester

 

Course No. Course Name Credit Hours (CH)

 

Departmental Courses
Microbiol. 4701 Immunology-II 2.0
Microbiol. 4702 Medical Microbiology-II 3.0
Microbiol. 4703 Environmental Microbiology 3.0
Microbiol. 4704 Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics 3.0
Microbiol. 4705* Practical/ Research project 4.0
Microbiol. 4706 Viva-voce 1.0
  Total 16.0

 

*The same research project will be continued from the course # 4705 to course # 4806

 

 

Microbiol. 4701               Immunology –II                    2.0CH                  50 Marks

 

  1. Humoral and Cell mediated Immunity: Classification of T-cell and B-cell, T –cell independent and dependent and defense mechanisms, B-cell independent and dependent and defense mechanisms, Interaction between humoral and cell mediated immunity.
  2. Immune regulation: Regulation of immune response by antigens, antibody, antigen presenting cells and lymphocytes, idiotypic regulation of immune response.
  3. Effector molecules: Cytokines: origin, source and effector function, cytokine action and network interaction.
  4. Immunological Tolerance: Mechanism of tolerance, thymic tolerance to self-antigens, B cell tolerance, artificially induced tolerance.
  5. Prophylaxis: Antigens used as vaccines, effectiveness and safety of vaccine, current vaccines, modern approaches, adjuvant.
  6. Immunodeficiency: Primary immunodeficiences, deficiencies of innate immunity, primary B cell deficiency, primary T cell deficiency, combine immunodeficiency, secondary immunodeficiency.
  7. Hypersensitivity: Hypersensitivity type-I, type-II, type-III and type-IV.
  8. Transplantation: Barriers of transplantation, law of transplantation, role of T lymphocytes in rejection, prevention of rejection.
  9. Tumor Immunology: Surface markers of tumor cell, immune response to tumor cells, lymphoproliferative disorders due to tumor growth, cancer immunology.
  10. Autoimmunity and autoimmune Disease: Association of autoimmunity with diseases, genetic factors in pathogenesis, etiology and treatment of autoimmune disease.

Books Recommended:

  1. Immunology, 5th Edition – Roitt I
  2. Roitt’s Essential Immunology – Delves P, Martin S, Burton D & Riott I
  3. Advance Immunology – Male DK, Champion B & Cooke A
  4. Text Book of Immunology – Barrett TJ
  5. Immunology: An Introduction – Tizard IR

 

 

 

 

Microbial. 3702   Medical Microbiology-II        3.0CH                    75 Marks

 

  1. Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment Infections Caused by the Gram-Positive Cocci: Staphylococcus aureus (Cutaneous Infections, Food Poisoning, Endocarditis, Toxic Shock Syndrome, etc.); Staphylococcus epidermidis (Endocarditis, Catheter and Shunt Infections, etc.); Enterococcus (Urinary Tract Infections, Septicemia, etc.); Streptococcus pyogenes (Pharyngitis, Impetigo, Erysipelas, Rheumatic Fever, etc.); Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcal Pneumonia, Otitis Media, Sinusitis, Meningitis, etc.); Streptococcus agalactiae (Neonatal Diseases, Other Infections).
  2. Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment Infections Caused by the Gram-Positive Bacilli: Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax); Listeria monocytogenes (Neonatal Diseases, etc.); Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Diphtheria); Clostridium perfringens (Gas Gangrene, Food Poisoning, etc.); Clostridium tetani (Tetanus); Clostridium botulinum (Botulism); Clostridium difficile (Gastroenteritis); Erysipelothrixrhusiopathiae (Erysipeloid).
  3. Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment Infections Caused by the Gram-Negative Cocci and Anaerobic Bacilli: Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonorrhea, PID, etc.); Neisseria meningitidis (Meningitis, etc.); Escherichia coli (Gastroenteritis); Salmonella (Gastroenteritis, Enteric fevers, etc.); Shigella (Shigellosis); Yersinia (Bubonic Plague, Enterocolitis); Vibrio (Cholera, Gastroenteritis, etc.); Campylobacter (Gastroenteritis); Helicobacter (Gastritis, Gastric and Duodenal Ulcers).
  4. Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment Infections Caused by the Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacilli: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pulmonary, Skin and Urinary Tract Infections, etc.); Bordetella pertussis (Whooping Cough); Francisella tularensis (Tularemia); Brucella (Undulant Fever, etc.); Haemophilus (Meningitis, Otitis, Chancroid, Arthritis, etc.); Legionella pneumophila (Legionnaires’ Disease, Pontiac Fever).
  5. Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment Infections Caused by the Anaerobes, Actinomyces, Mycobacteria and Mycoplasmas: Actinomyces (Endogenous Infections); Propionibacterium (Acne); Anaerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli (Chronic Sinusitis and Otitis, Brain Abscesses, Skin and Tissue Infections, etc.); Nocardia (Pulmonary and Cutaneous Infections); Mycobacterium (Tuberculosis, Leprosy, etc.); Mycoplasma (Atypical Pneumonia, etc.).
  6. Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment Infections Caused by the Spirochete, Rickettsial and Chlamydial Pathogens: Treponema pallidum (Syphilis, Yaws, etc.), Borrelia (Relapsing Fever, Lyme Disease), Rickettsia (Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Epidemic Typhus, Endemic Typhus); Coxiellaburnetii (Q Fever); Chlamydia trachomatis (Trachoma, Urogenital Infections, etc.); Chlamydophila (Pneumonia, Ornithosis).
  7. Fungal as Human Pathogens: Basic Biology of Fungi; General Information on Fungal Pathogenesis; Superficial Mycoses (Pityriasis Versicolor, Tinea Nigra, Black Piedra, etc.); Cutaneous (Etiology, Ecology and Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations); Subcutaneous Mycoses (Lymphocutaneous Sporotrichosis, Chromoblastomycosis, Phaeohyphomycosis, etc.); Systemic Mycoses (Histoplasmosis, Blastomycosis, Paracoccidioidomycosis, Coccidioidomycosis, Cryptococcosis, etc.); Opportunistic Mycoses (Candidiasis, Aspergillosis, Zygomycosis, Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia).
  8. Parasitic Diseases in Humans: Basic Biology of Parasites; Medical Importance of Parasites and Parasitic Diseases; Classification and Structure of Protozoa (Sarcomastigophora, Ciliophora, Apicomplexa, Microspora) and Metazoa (Helminths, Arthropods); Physiology and Replication of Protozoa.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Jawetz, Melnick, &Adelberg’s Medical Microbiology, 26th Edition. 2013. Geo F Brooks, Karen C Carroll, Janet S Butel, Stephen A Morse and Timothy A Mietzner. McGraw Hill Medical, New York.
  2. Bailey & Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology, 12th Edition. 2007. Betty A Forbes, Daniel F Sahm and Alice S Weissfeld. Mosby, St. Louise.
  3. Bacterial Pathogenesis: A Molecular Approach, 3rd Edition by Brenda A Wilson, Abigail A Salyers, Dixie D Whitt and Malcolm E Winkler. 2011. ASM Press, American Society of Microbiology, Washington DC.

 

Microbiol. 4703          Environmental Biotechnology          3.0 CH           75 Marks

 

  1. Introduction to Environmental Biotechnology: Role of microorganisms in geochemical cycles; Environmental pollutants and their microbial transformation.
  2. Bioremediation for Soil Environment: Environment of Soil Microorganisms; Soil Organic Matter and Characteristics; Soil Microorganisms Association with Plants; Pesticides and Microorganisms; Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Microorganisms; Industrial solvents and Microorganisms; Biotechnologies for Ex-situ Remediation of Soil; Biotechnologies for In-situ Remediation of Soil; Phytoremediation Technology for Soil Decontamination.
  3. Bioremediation for Air Environment: Atmospheric Environment for Microorganisms; Microbial Degradation of Contaminants in Gas Phase; Biological Filtration Processes for Decontamination of Air Stream – Biofiltration, Biotrickling Filtration and Bioscrubbers.
  4. Bioremediation for Water Environment: Biochemical, Molecular, and Ecological Foundations of Bioremediation; Contaminants in Groundwater; Ex-situ Decontamination of Groundwater – Characterizing the Site and Contaminant Complexity and Selecting the Bioremediation Option; Process Optimization; In-situ Bioremediation of Groundwater – Factors Affecting Bioaugmentation, Delivery Systems for Oxygen, Nutrients, and Innoculation; Landfill Leachate Biotreatment Technologies; Industrial Wastewater Biotreatment Technologies; Biotreatment of Surface Waters.
  5. Biotreatment of Metals: Microbial Transformation of Metals; Biological Treatment Technologies for Metals Remediation; Bioleaching and Biobenificiation; Bioaccumulation; Oxidation/Reduction Processes; Biological Methylation; Case studies.
  6. Overcoming Limitations of Bioremediation: Factors Affecting the Bioremediation Processes; Effects of Co-substrates on Microorganisms; Global Application of Bioremediation Technologies; Successful and Unsuccessful Case Studies.
  7. Emerging Environmental Biotechnologies: Phytoremediation; Sequestering Carbon Dioxide; Biomonitoring; Application of Microbial Enzymes; Biomembrane Reactors.
  8. Case Studies in Environmental Biotechnology: Environmental Biotechnology Research Activities in European Union, Japan, The USA and Other Countries.
  9. Clean Technology: Biomining; Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR); Production of bioplastics; Production of Biosurfactants – Bioemulsans and Paper Production;Microbial Desulphurization of Coal; Organic Waste Bioconversion – Composting and Ensiling; Biological Control of Insects and Pests; Biofertilizers; Environmental Biotechnology and biofuels.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Environmental Biotechnology: Principles and Applications. 2001. Bruce E Rittmann, Perry L McCarty. McGraw Hill, Boston.
  2. Environmental Biotechnology. Alan H Scragg. 1999. Addison Wesley Longman, Singapore.
  3. Environmental Biotechnology: Theory and Application.2003. Gareth M Evans and Judith C Furlong. Willey and Sons, West Sussex.
  4. Microbial Ecology: Fundamentals and Applications, Fourth Edition. Ronald M Atlasan Richard Bartha. Benjamin/Cumming Publishing Co., Inc., California.
  5. Biotechnology, 4th Edition. 2004. John E Smith, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
  6. Microbial Biotechnology: Fundamentals of Applied Microbiology, 2nd Edition. 2007. Alexander N Glazer and Hiroshi Nikaido. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

 

Microbiol. 4704        Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics        3.0 CH       75 Marks

 

  1. The Techniques of Molecular Biology: Basic Techniques Used to Identify, Amplify, and Clone Genes; Construction and Screening of DNA Libraries: The Molecular Analysis of DNA, RNA, and Protein.
  2. Selective Amplification of Genomic DNA Fragments: Constraints on DNA Replication: Primers and 5′-to-3′ Strand Elongation; The Polymerase Chain Reaction; After the PCR: Studying PCR Products; Conventional PCR vs. Real-Time PCR; Real-Time PCR Enables the Amount of Starting Material to be Quantified; PCR Amplification of Full-Length cDNAs; Gene Synthesis by PCR.
  3. Sequencing Genes and Genomes: Chain Termination DNA Sequencing; Chemical Cleavage DNA Sequencing; DNA Sequencing by Primer Walking; Pyrosequencing; Sequencing Using Reversible Chain Terminators; Sequencing by Ligation; How to Sequence a Genome; Using a Map to Aid Sequence Assembly.
  4. DNA Markers: DNA Markers Present in Genomic DNA; Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs); Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs); Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD); Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms AFLPs); Simple Tandem Repeat Polymorphisms (STRPs); Applications of DNA Markers.
  5. Introduction to Genome and Genomics: Genome and Genomics; Genome Annotation; A Glimpse at Comparative Genomics; Metagenomics; Transcriptomics or Functional Genomics; Proteomics; Metabolomics and Systems Biology.
  6. Introduction to Bioinformatics: philosophical, directional and application oriented background of bioinformatics.
  7. Human Genome Project (HGP): Influence area in Bioinformatics, Application in different industries, and its Indian scenario, as a business, problem and future aspects.
  8. Information Network: Internet, web Browser and address (NCBI, EBI etc). Databases – information resources for Proteins and Genomics.
  9. Spaced Repetition Software (SRS): SRS programs; Algorithms; Alignment.
  10. Phylogenetic Analysis: Fundamental of Phylogenetic model, Tree interpretation – Paralogues and orthologues, Tree building and tree evaluation, Phylogenetic software.
  11. Comparative Genome Analysis: Introduction, application, genome analysis and annotation.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Genetics: A Conceptual Approach, 5th 2014. Benjamin A Pierce. WH Freeman & Company, New York.
  2. Principles of Genetics, 6th Edition. 2012. Snustad P and Simmons MJ. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., New York.
  3. Principles of Genetics, 7th Edition. 2001. Robert H Tamarin. The McGraw−Hill Companies, New York.
  4. Genetics, 2nd Edition. 1984. Avers CJ. PWS Publishers, Boston.
  5. Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis: An Introduction, 4th Edition. 2010. Brown TA. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford.
  6. Molecular Genetics of Bacteria, 3rd Edition. 2007. Larry Snyder and Wendey Champness. Americal Society for Microbiology, Washington DC.
  7. Genetics: Analysis of Genes and Genomes, 6th Edition. 2005. Daniel L Hartl and Elizabeth W Jones. Jones & Bartlett Publishers Inc., Boston.

 

 

Microbiol. 4705             Practical/ Research Project      4.0CH         100 Marks

 

  1. Detection of indicators and pathogens in water: coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio.
  2. Isolation, screening and identification: Microorganisms producing antibiotic, pectinase and cellulose.
  3. Isolation and identification of common pathogens: Food spoilage, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus in fast-food, coli and Aeromonas hydrophila in salad dressingss, Aspergillus flavus from oil seeds.
  4. Detection of toxins: Hemolysin and phospholipase C (Toxins) from cereus.
  5. Enrichment and isolation of biodegradative microbes from environment: Non-cultivable state of microorganisms (detection by FA or Acridine orange DVC).
  6. Production and purification of enzyme: Amylase by fungal isolates, culture, separation- ammonium sulphate precipitation, column chromatography, dialysis, gel-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)
  7. Whole cell Immobilization: Whole microbial cell technique and application.
  8. Experiments with nucleic acids: DNA extraction and purification, agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA, DNA digestion by restriction enzyme, transformation of genes into component, E. coli cells, ligation of DNA with appropriate vector, study of genetic map.
  9. Detection of antigen (Ag) and antibody (Ab): By different immunological techniques, immunoblotting of bacterial proteins, HLKA typing, detection of viral DNA by PCR amplification and dot-blot hybridization, deytection of viral Ag and Ab by RPHA method, tritration of virus using immunofluorescent microscope, PCR amplification of HBV core and surface gene
  10. Research Project: Research Projects on specific topics of scientific importance will be set for selective student(s).

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Text Book of Medical Laboratory Technology – Profullo and Godkar
  2. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries , New Edition,Volume I & II – Monica Cheesbrough
  3. Microbiology- A Laboratory Manual, 7th Edition – Cuppuccino & Sherman. Dorling Kindersely (India) pvt Ltd

 

 

Microbiol.4706                            Viva-voce                  1.0 CH                  25 Marks

 

Topics of all the theoretical and practical courses of 7th semester and other relevant matters will be included.

Fourth Year: 8th Semester

 

Course No. Course Name Credit hour (CH)

 

Departmental Courses
Microbiol. 4801 Microbial Biotechnology 3.0
Microbiol. 4802 Diagnostic Microbiology 2.0
Microbiol. 4803 Analytical Microbiology 2.0
Microbiol. 4804 Quality Control of Food and Pharmaceuticals 2.0
Microbiol. 4805 Genetic Engineering 2.0
Microbiol. 4806* Practical/ Research project 4.0
Microbiol. 4807 Viva-voce 2.0
  Total 17.0

 

*The same research project will be continued from the course # 4705 to course # 4806

 

 

Microbiol. 4801 Microbial Biotechnology 3.0CH 75 Marks

 

  1. Fundamental aspects: Historical development, scope and essential feature of microbial biotechnology.
  2. Energy and biotechnology: Biomass, biofuel, conservation of fuel, ethanol and methane fermentation, cells and other bioelectrochemical devices.
  3. Food, drink and biotechnology: Biotransformation of materials, dairy products (cheese, yogurt, butter and cultured milk), cereal product (bread and baked foods, starch hydrolysates), brewing (alcoholic beverage), cider, vinegar, protein products (SCP), food additives and ingredients.
  4. Biotechnology of microbial Enzymes: Types of microbial enzymes, enzymes production, different methods of extraction and purification, characterization of enzyme, applications of microbial enzymes.
  5. Chemistry and biotechnology: The current development, generation of chemicals from biomass.
  6. Materials and biotechnology: Microbial leaching, metal transformation and immobilization, biopolymers, biodegradation of materials.
  7. Environmental and biotechnology: Processing of waste, biological control of microbial waste treatment system, biological processing of industrial wastes.
  8. Genetics and biotechnology: Conventional routes to strain improvement, in vivo and in vitro genetic manipulation.
  9. Chemical engineering and biotechnology: Microbial factors and process engineering.
  10. Factors affecting process: Performance and economics, feature development in industrial biotechnological process.
  11. Immobilization technology: Immobilization of enzymes and whole cells.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Biotechnology Principles – Smith JE/ Van Nost. Reinhold, 1985
  2. Prescott and Dunn’s Industrial Microbiology, 4th Edition – G Reed, Chapman and Hall, 1982.
  3. Comprehensive Biotechnology, 2nd Edition – MooYoung M, Michael Butler.
  4. Introduction to Biotechnology – Brown CM, Priest FG & Campbell I. Blackwell Science Inc. 1987.
  5. Biotechnology: Principles and Applications – Higgins IJ, Best DJ & Jones J. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1986.

 

Microbiol. 4802               Diagnostic Microbiology             2.0CH             50 Marks

 

  1. Specimen Management: Brief History: Specimen Collection and Handling; Examination of Specimen; Primary Culture – Selection of Culture Media, Specimen Preparation, Inoculation of Solid Media and Incubation Conditions; Specimen Workup.
  2. Role of Microscopy: Overview of the Role of Microscopy in Diagnostic Microbiology – Common Laboratory Procedure Use in the Laboratory Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases, Application of Microscopy in Diagnostic Microbiology and Types of Microscopy for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases; Bright-Field (Light) Microscopy; Phase Contrast Microscopy; Dark-Field Microscopy; Electron Microscopy.
  3. Traditional Cultivation and Identification: Principle of Bacterial Cultivation; Nutritional Requirement; Artificial Media for Routine Bacteriology; Environmental Requirements; Bacterial Cultivation; Bacterial Identification – Principles of Identification, Organism Identification Using Genotypic and Phenotypic Criteria; Types of Enzyme-Based Tests; Principles of Phenotype-Based Identification Schemes; Analysis of Metabolic Profiles; Commercial Identification Systems; Chromatography.
  4. Laboratory Methods and Strategies for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: Goals and Limitations Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Standardization; Principle of Testing Methods; Methods That Directly Measure Antimicrobial Activity – Conventional Testing Methods, Commercial Susceptibility Testing Systems, and Alternative Approaches for Enhancing Resistance Detection; Methods That Directly Detect Specific Resistance Mechanisms – Phenotypic and Genotypic Methods; Special Methods from Complex Antimicrobial-Organism Interactions; Laboratory Strategies for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing – Relevance, Accuracy and Communication.
  5. Immunochemical Methods Used for Organism Detection: Limitations of Traditional Diagnostic Methods; Production of Antibodies for Use in Laboratory Testing – Polyclonal and Monoclonal Antibodies; Principles of Immunochemical Methods Used for Organism Detection – Precipitin Tests, Particle Agglutination Method, Immunofluorescent Assays, Enzyme Immunoassays and Other Immunoassays.
  6. Serologic Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: Features of the Immune Response; Characteristics of Antibodies; Antibody Related Diagnostic Testing; Principles of Serologic Test Methods; Methods of Antibody Detection – Direct Whole Pathogen Agglutination Assays, Particle Agglutination Tests, Flocculation Tests, Counterimmunoelectrophoresis, Immunodiffusion Assays, Haemagglutination Inhibition Assays, Neutralization Assays, Complement Fixation Assays, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays, Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Tests, Radioimmunoassays, Fluorescent Immunoassays and Western Blot Immunoassays.
  7. Nucleic Acid-Based Analytic Methods for Microbial Identification and Characterization: Overview of Molecular Methods; Nucleic Acid Hybridization Methods – Principle of Nucleic Acid Hybridization, Hybridization Steps and Components, Hybridization Formats, and Solid Support Materials and Common Solid Formats; PCR-Based Amplification Methods – Overview of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Derivations of the PCR Method, Technical Aspects of Real-Time PCR Assays, Fluorogenic Probes for Detection of Amplified Product in Real-Time PCR Assays; Non-PCR-Based Amplification Methods; Application of Nucleic Acid-Based Methods.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Bailey & Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology, 12th Edition. 2007. Betty A Forbes, Daniel F Sahm and Alice S Weissfeld. Mosby, St. Louise.
  2. Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology, 5th Edition. 2015. Connie R Mahon,Donald C. Lehman and George Manuselis Jr. WB Saunders Co., New York.

 

Microbiol. 4803                Analytical Microbiology          2.0 CH              50 Marks

 

  1. Spectroscopic techniques: Visible, ultraviolet and infra-red spectrophotometery, spectrofluorimetry, lumiometry, NMR, and mass spectrometry.
  2. Centrifugation techniques: Principle of sedimentation, centrifuges and their use, density gradient centrifugation and ultracentrifuge.
  3. Chromatographic techniques: Principle, different types (column, thin-layer, paper, adsorption, gas-liquid, ion-exchange, exclusion, affinity and high performance liquid chromatography).
  4. Electrophoretic techniques: Principle, factors affecting electrophoresis, low and high voltage electrophoresis, gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, isoelectric focusing, isoelectrophoresis and preparative electrophoresis.
  5. Protein characterization: Determination of molecular weight, amino acid composition and number of subunit, protein sequencing.
  6. Microbial growth rate measurement techniques: Enumeration of microorganisms, measurement of biomass, biomass components and biomass environment.
  7. Instrumentation for monitoring and controlling bioreactors: Basic evaluation for in-line and on-line monitoring: fermentation process control.
  8. Radioisotope technique: Nature, detection and measurement of radioactivity, application of radioisotopes in the biological sciences, safety aspects of the use of radioisotopes.
  9. Cell culture: Primary, secondary and continuous cell culture- animal cell.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Protein Purification – Scopes RK
  2. Comprehensive Biotechnolgy, Voll. II – MooYoung M
  3. A Guide to Principle And Techniques of Practical Biochemistry, 3rd Edition – Wilson k & Goulding KH
  4. An Introduction to Practical Biochemestry, 2nd Edition – Plummer DT
  5. Basic Biochemical Methods, 2nd Edition – Alexender RR & Griffiths JM

 

Microbiol. 4804   Quality Control of Food and Pharmaceuticals      2.0 CH        50 Marks

 

  1. Indicators of Food Safety and Quality, Principles of Quality Control, and Microbial Criteria: Indicators of Food Microbial Quality and Safety – Indicators of Product Quality, Indicators of Food Safety, The Possible Overuse of Fecal Indicator Organisms and Predictive Microbiology/Microbial Modeling; The HACCP System and Food Safety – Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point System and Microbiological Criteria.
  2. Regulatory and Safety Issues in Food and Pharmaceutical Industry: Introduction; Biological Precautions; Chemical Precautions; Personal Precautions; Biosafety – Development of Genetic Engineering Biotechnology, Transgenic Organisms; Biosafety Guidelines and Regulations; Intellectual Property Right (IPR) and Protection (IPP); Protection of Biotechnological Inventions.

 

  1. Factory and Hospital Hygiene: Introduction; Definitions – Manufacture, Quality Assurance (QA), Good manufacturing practice (GMP), Quality control (QC), In-process control; Control of microbial contamination during manufacture – General Aspects, Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP), Environmental Cleanliness and Hygiene, Quality of Starting Materials, Process Design, Quality Control and Documentation and Packaging, Storage and Transport; Manufacture of Sterile Products – Clean and Aseptic Areas, General Requirements, Design of Premises, Internal Surfaces, Fittings and Floors, Services, Air Supply, Clothing, Changing Facilities, Cleaning and disinfection and Operation; Aseptic areas – additional requirements, Clothing, Entry to aseptic areas, Equipment and operation, Isolator and Blow/Fill/Seal Technology; Guide to Good Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practice.

 

  1. Manufacture of Antibiotics: Introduction; Background; The Production of Benzylpenicillin – The Organism, Inoculum Preparation, The Fermenter, Oxygen Supply, Temperature Control, Defoaming Agents and Instrumentation, Media Additions, Transfer and Sampling Systems; Control of the Fermentation – Batched Medium, Fed Nutrients, Stimulation by PAA and Termination; Extraction – Removal of Cells, Isolation of Benzylpenicillin and Further Processing; The production of penicillin V; The Production of Cephalosporin C; Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP).

 

  1. The Production of Immunological Products: Introduction; Vaccines – Vaccines Used in Conventional Immunization Programmes, The Seed Lot System, Production of the Bacteria and the Cellular Components of Bacterial Vaccines, Fermentation, Production of the Viruses and the Components of Viral Vaccines, Blending, Filling and Drying and Quality Control; In-Vivo Diagnostics – Preparation and Quality Control; Immune Sera – Preparation and Quality Control; Human Immunoglobulins – Source Material, Fractionation and Quality Control.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Modern Food Microbiology, 6th Edition. 2000. James Monroe Jay. Aspen Publishers, Inc., Maryland.

 

  1. Pharmaceutical Biotechnology – Concepts and Applications, 2nd Edition. Gary Walsh. 2007. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex.

 

  1. Hugo and Russell’s Pharmaceutical Microbiology, 8th Edition. Stephen P Denyer, Norman A Hodges, Sean P Gorman and Brendan Gilmore. Blackwell Science Ltd., Massachusetts.

 

  1. Pharmaceutical Microbiology. Ashutosh Kar. New Age International (P) Ltd. Publishers, New Delhi.

 

 

 

Microbiol. 4805                Genetic Engineering             2.0 CH                  50 Marks

 

  1. Purification of DNA from Living Cells: Preparation of Total Cell DNA; Preparation of Plasmid DNA; Preparation of Bacteriophage DNA.
  2. Manipulation of Purified DNA: The Range of DNA Manipulative Enzymes; Enzymes for Cutting DNA—Restriction Endonucleases; Ligation – Joining DNA Molecules Together.
  3. Introduction of DNA into Living Cells: Transformation – The Uptake of DNA by Bacterial Cells; Identification of Recombinants; Introduction of Phage DNA into Bacterial Cells; Identification of Recombinant Phages; Introduction of DNA into Non-Bacterial Cells.
  4. Vectors for Gene Cloning: Plasmids and Bacteriophages; Cloning Vectors Based on coli Plasmids; Cloning Vectors Based on M13 Bacteriophage; Cloning Vectors Based on lBacteriophage; Lambda (l) and Other High-Capacity Vectors Enable Genomic Libraries to be Constructed.
  5. Production of Protein from Cloned Genes: Overview of Gene Expression; Regulation of Gene Expression; Requirements for Gene Expression; Expression Vector; Escherichia coli Expression Vector Features; General Problems with the Production of Recombinant Protein in coli; In vitro Translation; Important Element for Translation; Production of Recombinant Protein by Eukaryotic Cells.
  6. Studying Gene Expression and Function: Transcription of cloned gene, Identifying protein binding sites on a DNA molecule, Identifying and studying the translation product of a cloned gene: hybrid-release translation (HRT) and hybrid-arrest translation (HART). Analysis of protein by in vitro mutagenesis; Studying protein-protein interaction phage display, yeast two hybrid system.

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis: An Introduction, 4th Edition. 2010. Brown TA. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford.

 

Microbiol. 4806             Practical/ Research Project          4.0 CH         100 Marks

 

  1. Making of useful products: Dough fermentation by baker’s yeast for bread making, acetic acid by Azotobacter aceti, Yogurt by lactic starter, citric acid by Aspergillus niger.
  2. Test for microbiological quality of water and beverages: Standard quality analysis of water MPN and quantitative analysis of water by membrane filter method.
  3. Estimation of biodeterioration: Determination of microbes from corrosive surfaces, bacterial pollutions in sewage and industrial of effluents, and COD, BOD, ammonia, residual chlorine in waste water.
  4. Microbial biotechnology: Methods of whole cell immobilization by Ca-alginate, separation of amino acids by thin layer chromatography, separation of sugars by paper chromatography.
  5. Growth kinetics and substrate utilization: Demonstration of a fermentor and its operation, detection of specific growth rate substrate utilization constant and biomass in a steady state batch culture.
  6. Pesticide degradation: Biodegradation of halogenated pesticide by bacterial dehalogenases, determination of organic Carbone in soil and waste –water,
  7. Clinical diagnosis: Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) detection, demonstration of DNA fingerprinting in clinical diagnosis, gene detection and DNA-hybridization analysis in clinical diagnosis, determination of plasma fibrinogen level, determination of fibrin degradation product(FDP), radioimmuno detection of immunoglobulin (RID).
  8. Tuberculin test: Anti Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (IgA, IgG, IgM), determination of C-reactive protein (CRP).
  9. Research Project: Research projects on specific topics of scientific importance will be set for selective students (s).

 

Books Recommended:

  1. Text Book of Medical Laboratory Technology, Volume I & II, 2014 – Profullo and Godkar
  2. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries , New Edition,Volume I & II – Monica Cheesbrough
  3. Microbiology- A Laboratory Manual, 7th Edition – Cuppuccino & Sherman. Dorling Kindersely (India) pvt Ltd

 

Microbiol. 4807                         Viva-voce                    2.0CH                     50 Marks

 

Topics of all the theoretical and practical courses of 8th semester and other relevant matters will be included.