Prof. Dr. Bijon Kumar Sil
Head, Department of Microbiology
Contact Number: 01772564593


M.Sc. in Microbiology (Course Curriculum)


Semester Course Number Course Name Credit hour
First  Microb. 5101 Molecular Genetics (Core) 3.0
Microb. 5102 Analytical Microbiology (Core) 3.0
Microb. 5103 Immunopathology and Vaccine Development (Core) 3.0
Microb. 5104 Environmental Biotechnology (Core) 3.0
Microb. 5105 Genomics and Bioinformatics (Optional) / Microbiological Safety of Foods and Beverages (Optional) / Enzyme and Protein Engineering (Optional) / Microbiological Techniques (Optional). Select any two courses from the four. 2.0
Microb. 5106 2.0
Second Microb. 5201 Bacterial Pathogenesis and Molecular Epidemiology (Core) 3.0
Microb. 5202 Molecular Virology and Oncology (Core) 3.0
Microb. 5203 Public Health Microbiology (Core) 3.0
Microb. 5204 Bioprocess Technology (Core) 3.0
Microb. 5205 Extremophiles (Optional)/ Research Methodology (Optional)/ Biomass and Biofuel (Optional)/ Biomedical Waste Management and Treatment (Optional).

Select any two courses from the four.

Microb. 5206 2.0
Third Microb. 5301 Research proposal and Presentation 2
Microb. 5302 Thesis Evaluation 4
Microb. 5303 Thesis Defense 2
Total = 40


 First Semester

Course Number Course Name Credit hour
Microb. 5101 Molecular Genetics (Core) 3.0
Microb. 5102 Analytical Microbiology (Core) 3.0
Microb. 5103 Immunopathology and Vaccine Development (Core) 3.0
Microb. 5104 Environmental Biotechnology (Core) 3.0
Microb. 5105


Genomics and Bioinformatics (Optional)/Microbiological Safety of Foods and Beverages (Optional)/ Enzyme and Protein Engineering (Optional)/ Microbiological Techniques (Optional). Select any two courses from the four. 2.0
Microb. 5106 2.0
Total = 16


Microb. 5101 Molecular Genetics (Core) 3 CH 75 Marks


  1. Basic concepts and techniques in gene cloning: Definitions and important terminology. cDNA, Cloning vector, DNA fingerprint, Plasmid, Cosmid, DNA isolation and purification, PCR, Agarose gel electrophoresis.
  2. DNA Replication: Semiconservative Replication; Modes of Replication; Requirements of Replication; Direction of Replication; The Mechanism of Replication of Bacterial DNA, Mechanism of Replication of Eukaryotic DNA.
  3. Transcription: Transcription of RNA from DNA; The Process of Bacterial Transcription; The Process of Eukaryotic Transcription; Post-Transcriptional Processing of mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA.
  4. Translation: The Genetic Code; Stages of Translation Process; The Overall Process of Protein Synthesis; RNA–RNA Interactions in Translation; Polyribosome; The Post-translational Modifications of Proteins.
  5. Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes: Ways of regulating eukaryotic gene expression (controlled transcription of DNA, alternate splicing of RNA, cytoplasmic control of mRNA stability), Introduction to transcriptional activity by environmental and biological factors, molecular control of transcription.
  6. Gene Expression and Chromosome Organization: Molecular organization of transcriptionally active DNA, Gene Splicing, DNA methylation and inactivation of the whole chromosome.
  7. Human Gene Therapy: Somatic cell therapy and germ-line gene therapy, Gene Function interruption therapy: antisense RNA and ribozymes, Therapeutic use of anti-sense oligonucleotide: Pre-transcriptional and post-transcriptional inactivation of mRNA, Gene therapy and Cancer, Ethical issues raised in gene therapy.


Books recommended:

  1. Genetics: A Conceptual Approach, Fifth Edition. 2014. Benjamin A Pierce. WH Freeman Publishers, New York.
  2. Principles of Genetics, Sixth Edition. 2012. Snustad P and Simmons MJ. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., New York.
  3. Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis: An Introduction, 4th Edition. 2010. Brown TA. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford.


Microb. 5102 Analytical Microbiology (Core) 3 CH 75 Marks


  1. Spectroscopic Techniques: Visible, ultraviolet and infra-red spectrophotometery, spectrofluorimetry, lumiometry, NMR and mass spectrometry.
  2. Centrifugation Techniques: Principle of sedimentation, centrifuges and their use, density gradient centrifugation and ultracentrifuge.
  3. Chromatographic Techniques: Principle, different types (column, thin-layer, paper, adsorption, gas-liquid, ion-exchange, exclusion, affinity and high performance liquid chromatography).
  4. Electrophoretic Techniques: Principle, factors affecting electrophoresis, low and high voltage electrophoresis, gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, isoelectric focusing, isoelectrophoresis and preparative electrophoresis.
  5. Protein Characterization: Determination of molecular weight, amino acid composition and number of subunit, protein sequencing.
  6. Radioisotope Technique: Nature, detection and measurement of radioactivity, application of radioisotopes in the biological sciences, safety aspects of the use of radioisotopes.
  7. Techniques Used in Genetic Engineering.
  8. Cell culture techniques: Primary, secondary and continuous cell culture- animal cell (HELA, VERO and other cells).


Books Recommended:

  1. Protein Purification – Scopes RK
  2. Comprehensive Biotechnolgy, Voll. II – MooYoung M
  3. A Guide to Principle And Techniques of Practical Biochemistry, 3rd Edition– Wilson k & Goulding KH
  4. An Introduction to Practical Biochemestry, 2nd Edition – Plummer DT
  5. Basic Biochemical Methods, 2nd Edition – Alexender RR & Griffiths JM


Microb. 5103 Immunopathology and Vaccine Development (Core) 3 CH 75 Marks


  1. Inactivation and Activation of Biologically Active Molecule: Mechanism of antibody mediate inactivation: Hormone, receptor, ligand, Neutralism antibodies-cause and effect, Protective functions of inactivating antibodies.
  2. Cytotoxic and Cytolytic Reaction: Mechanism of Cytolytic Reactions, Immunohaematologic disease: Erythrocyte, leukocytes and platelets, Detection of circulating cytotoxic antibodies, Protective and pathologic effects in infectious disease.
  3. Granulomatous Reaction: Nature of glaucomatous, Granulomatous disease (infectious disease, bacterial and parasitic).
  4. Inflammation: Non-Immune and Immune Inflammation, Immune specific protection against infections, Interaction of immune mechanism in infectious disease, Evasion of immune defense mechanisms.
  5. Antibody Engineering: Antibody gene cloning, Recombinant antibody gene expression, Applications of engineered antibodies.
  6. Vaccination: Designing of vaccine (Attenuated vaccine, Conjugate vaccine, Subunit vaccine, DNA based and other vaccines).
  7. Vaccine Strategy: Different experimental vaccines (Botulism, anthrax, Malaria, Pneumonia, Cholera, Typhoid, Hepatitis and tumors).


Books Recommended:

  1. Immunology, 5th Edition – Roitt I
  2. Roitt’s Essential Immunology – Delves P, Martin S, Burton D &Roitt I
  3. Advanced Immunology – Male DK, Champion B & Cooke A


Microb. 5104 Environmental Biotechnology (Core) 3 CH 75 Marks


  1. Environmentally transmitted pathogens: Various type of bacterial pathogens including opportunistic ones (Transmission, Survival and pathogenicity), Types of Parasites, Emerging pathogens, Viruses.
  2. Risk Assessment: The concept of risk assessment, The process of risk assessment (Hazard identification, Exposure assessment, Dose-response assessment), Risk characterization, Microbial risk assessment.
  3. Microorganisms and Metal Pollutants: Source of Metals, Metal bio-availability in the environment, Metal toxicity effects on the microbial cells, Mechanisms of microbial metal resistance and detoxification, The benefits of metal, (Microbial interaction, Innovative microbial approaches to the remediation of metal, Contaminated aquatic system with special reference to : arsenic, chromium and lead).
  4. Biosensor: Recent developments in biosensors and their use, Characteristics of a biosensor, Biochemical application of biosensors (in environmental and pollution detection)
  5. Nonculturable Microorganisms in the Environment: Concept of viable but nonculturable cells (VBNC), Molecular genetic methods for detection and identification of VBNC, Implication and significance of VBNC in environment and health.
  6. Pollution Control Biotechnology: Use of commercial blend of microorganisms and enzymes in wastewater treatment, Immobilized cells in the waste treatment, Potential application of recombinant DNA technology in waste treatment.
  7. Xenobiotic and Degrading Bacteria and their Catabolic Genes in Bioremediation: In situ Analysis of microbial community and activity in bioremediation, DNA based methods, RNA based methods Genetic finger-printing techniques, Recent development of methods increasing specificity detection.


Books Recommended:

  1. Environmental Biotechnology: Principles and Applications. 2001. Bruce E Rittmann, Perry L McCarty. McGraw Hill, Boston.
  2. Environmental Biotechnology. Alan H Scragg. 1999. Addison Wesley Longman, Singapore.
  3. Environmental Biotechnology: Theory and Application.2003. Gareth M Evans and Judith C Furlong. Willey and Sons, West Sussex.


Microb. 5105 / 5106 Genomics and Bioinformatics 2 CH 50 Marks


  1. Introduction: Microbial genome; the human genome, Importance of genome project, Structural and functional genomics, Post – genomics, Bioinformatics, Transcriptome, Proteome and proteomics.
  2. Protocols of Detection of Polymorphisms: DNA sequence polymorphisms, RFLP- based protocol, PCR based protocol (ASO protocol, SSCP protocol, RADP protocol), Protocols for detection of micro satellite, Mini-satellite, Deletion, duplication and other insertion, Complex haplotype, Karyotype analysis(DNA arrays on microchips).
  3. Mapping Genome by Genetic and Physical Techniques: Genetic and physical maps, Markers for genetic maps, Approaches to genetic mapping, High density linkage map, RFLP and micro satellite maps, Cytogenetic maps, Clone banks, Restriction mapping (Long-range physical maps, Fish mapping; STS mapping, Positional cloning, Chromosome walks and chromosome jumps).
  4. Strategies for Assembly of a Contiguous DNA Sequence: Sequence assembly by the shotgun approach; Sequence assembly by the clone contig approach; the direct shotgun approach:
  5. Sequencing Phase of the Human Genome Project: Cloning and separation of the large DNA fragments; Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) cloning systems.
  6. Post Genomics: Locating genes in DNA sequence, Gene location by sequence inspection, Experimental techniques for gene location, Determining the function of an unknown gene, Computer analysis of gene function, assigning gene function by experimental analysis, Activity of a protein coded by an unknown gene, Comparative genomic as an aid to gene mapping in the study of human disease genes.
  7. Identification of Gene Function in Bacteria: Transcriptional reporter fusion (replicoori), Mutagenesis strategies (Site directed, Transponson, Viral transduction) Linkage, cloning and rapid sequencing of the gene in question.
  8. Bioinformatics: Definition, Sequence comparison by computational analysis and gene bank retrieval, Pattern matching and automatic discovery, Protein motif and putative function, 2, 3 D protein structure (computer model), Protein threading and protein folding, Determination of homology and protein identification, Genome cartography and genome annotation, Evolution and phylogeny, Analysis of gene expression, Metabolic pathways and regulatory network.


Books Recommended:

  1. Genetics: A Conceptual Approach, 5th Edition. 2014. Benjamin A Pierce. WH Freeman & Company, New York.
  2. Principles of Genetics, 6th Edition. 2012. Snustad P and Simmons MJ. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., New York.
  3. Principles of Genetics, 7th Edition. 2001. Robert H Tamarin. The McGraw−Hill Companies, New York.


Microb. 5105 / 5106 Microbiological Safety of Foods and Beverages 2 CH 50 Marks


  1. Introduction: Importance of safe food and beverage for health, Manufacture of hygienic foods, Microbial indicators of safe foods.
  2. Factors Influencing Microbiological Safety of Foods: Process equipment and plant design, Sanitation and cleaning, Food ingredients, Personal hygiene, Packaging, Storage, Transportation.
  3. Food Poisoning and Spoilage: Poisoning and spoilage problems, Control and monitoring programs, Detection methods (Conventional, Rapid, Rapid end-detection and specific detection technique).
  4. Management and Control of Food Safety: Sanitation and hygiene program, Control and inspection, Management of microbial hazards in–foods (HACCP plans, RC, RM, RA, GMP, GHP, and GRAS).
  5. Investigation of Food-Borne Disease Outbreaks: Objectives, Personnel involved, Materials and equipment, Field of the investigation, Laboratory testing, Interpretation and application of results, Preventing measure.
  6. Food Laws and Regulation: Laws, Enforcement, Impact of regulations, Exports and imports.


Books Recommended:

  1. Modern Food Microbiology, 6th Edition. 2000. James Monroe Jay. Aspen Publishers, Inc., Maryland.
  2. Pharmaceutical Biotechnology – Concepts and Applications, 2nd Edition. Gary Walsh. 2007. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex.
  3. Hugo and Russell’s Pharmaceutical Microbiology, 8th Edition. Stephen P Denyer, Norman A Hodges, Sean P Gorman and Brendan Gilmore. Blackwell Science Ltd., Massachusetts.


Microb. 5105 / 5106 Enzyme and Protein Engineering  2 CH 50 Marks


  1. Proteins: The scope of protein biotechnology, The range of industrially significant proteins, Proteins employed in healthcare industry, Protein sources, Microorganisms as a sources of proteins, Plants as a sources of industrially important proteins, Animal tissue as a protein source, Conformational stability of proteins, Protein interaction, Recombinant protein technology, Protein engineering.
  2. Enzymes: Industrial approach to enzyme production, Development of new enzyme preparation, Medical uses of enzyme,  Enzymes in the antibiotics, The use of enzyme as catalyst in organic chemistry, Restriction endonuclease, Biochemical processing, Industrial and technical uses of enzyme ( Enzymes in the leather industry, Enzymes in the textile industry,  Enzymes in the paper manufacture), Application of enzymes in food industry, Use of enzyme in the extraction of natural products, Enzyme-based detergents, Use of enzymes as cleansing agents, Detoxifying enzymes, Miscellaneous uses of biocatalysts.


Books Recommended:

  1. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, Fifth Edition -David L Nelson and Michael M Cox. 2008. WH Freeman and Company, New York.
  2. Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry, 30th Edition – Victor Rodwell, David Bender, Kathleen M Botham, Peter J Kennelly, P Anthony Weil. 2015.The McGraw-Hill Companies, New York.


Microb. 5105 / 5106 Microbial Techniques 2 CH 50 Marks


  1. Microscope and Microscopy: Microscopy, types of microscopes, principles of microscopy, Functions of different types of microscopes, Applications of a microscope in higher research.
  2. Techniques of Observing Microorganisms: Observation of microorganisms under the microscope by- Wet-mount and hanging-drop technique, Staining of microbial samples, Mechanisms of different types of staining.
  3. Cultivation, Isolation and Growth Measurement: Types of cultivation in different conditions, Isolation and pure culture technique, Measurement of growth by different types of measurement techniques, Direct cell counting, Measurement of biomass, Viable counts.
  4. Characterization and Identification: Morphological characteristics, cultural characteristics, Staining of properties, biochemical characteristics, Antigenic properties,    genetic nature.
  5. Culture Preservation and Management: Different methods for short-term and long-term preservation of microbial culture, Monitoring and routine check of cultures, Management of different type culture collections.
  6. Methods of Microbial Control: Concept of microbial control, Factors influencing microbial control, Different physical and chemical methods, Rate of microbial death, Agents used to control microorganisms.


Books Recommended:

  1. Microbial Ecology: Fundamental and Applications – Atlas RM and Bartha R
  2. Microbial Ecology: A conceptual Approach – Lynch JM & Poole NJ
  3. Microbiology, 5th Edition – Pelczer MJ Jr, Chan ECS & Krieg NR


Second Semester

Course Number Course Name Credit hour
Microb. 5201 Bacterial Pathogenesis and Molecular Epidemiology (Core) 3.0
Microb. 5202 Molecular Virology and Oncology (Core) 3.0
Microb. 5203 Public Health Microbiology (Core) 3.0
Microb. 5204 Bioprocess Technology (Core) 3.0
Microb. 5205 Extremophiles (Optional)/ Research Methodology (Optional)/ Biomass and Biofuel (Optional)/ Biomedical Waste Management and Treatment (Optional).

Select any two courses from the four.

Microb. 5206 2.0
Total = 16





  1. Pathogenesis with Special Reference to Molecular Basis: Shigellosis and Cholera, Bacterial ulcer in human, Meningitis and epiglottis, Botulism and Gas gangrene, Plague and Pelvic Inflammatory disease (Haemophilus influenza, Listeria monocytogenes).
  2. Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotic: Mechanism of antibiotic resistance, Antibiotic tolerance: Transfer of resistance genes.
  3. Infection control and prevention: Epidemic versus endemic, steps in an epidemiologic evaluation, Role of the laboratory in epidemiologic evaluation (Potential problems related to laboratory activities in epidemiology investigations).
  4. Epidemiologic Analysis: Criteria for evaluating typing system, Phenotypic techniques (Biotyping, Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, Serotyping, Bacteriophage typing, MLEE).
  5. Genotypic Techniques: (Plasmid analysis, REA of chromosomal DNA, Southern blot analysis of RRLPs, PFGE of chromosomal DNA typing system applying PCR), PCR-based detection of restriction sites, Nucleotide sequence analysis, Molecular typing of specific organisms, Application of microbial typing system, Implementing a molecular epidemiologic laboratory.


Books Recommended:

  1. Jawetz, Melnick, & Adelberg’s Medical Microbiology, Twenty-Sixth Edition. 2013. Geo F Brooks, Karen C Carroll, Janet S Butel, Stephen A Morse and Timothy A Mietzner. McGraw Hill Medical, New York.
  2. Bailey & Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology, Twelfth Edition. 2007. Betty A Forbes, Daniel F Sahm and Alice S Weissfeld. Mosby, St. Louise.
  3. Bacterial Pathogenesis: A Molecular Approach, Third Edition by Brenda A Wilson, Abigail A Salyers, Dixie D Whitt and Malcolm E Winkler. 2011. ASM Press, American Society of Microbiology, Washington DC.




  1. Persistence of Viruses: Patterns of virus infections, Mechanisms of viral persistence, Persistence of HSV, EPV, and HIV in humans.
  2. Viruses of Special Interest: Dengue and Japanese encephalitis virus, Ebola virus infection, Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and SARS coronavirus, Other important viruses of recent epidemics.
  3. Virus Evolution and Emerging Viruses: Viruses Evolution, Emerging viruses, Emergence of dengue virus infection in Bangladesh.
  4. Oncology: Introduction and general terminology of oncology.
  5. Cancer: Development of cancer, Spread of cancer, Molecular mechanisms of transformation by DNA and RNA viruses, Physical and chemical factors to cancer development, Cancer therapy.


Books Recommended:

  1. Microbiology: Concepts and Applications – Pelczer MJ Jr, Chan ECS & Krieg NR2
  2. Biology of Microorganisms, 13th Edition –Madigan MT, Martinko JM, Stahl DA, Clark PD
  3. Fields Virology, 6th Edition, Vol. I & II – KnipeDM, Howley PM


Microb. 5203 PUBLIC HEALTH MICROBIOLOGY (Core) 3 CH 75 Marks


  1. Fundamentals: Definition, Basic concept of epidemiology.
  2. Terminologies: Morality, Morbidity, Disease Progression, Endemic, Epidemic, Pandemic, Outbreak.
  3. Infectious Diseases: The leading human killers, emerging and resurgent infectious diseases, transmission, emergence factors.
  4. Epidemic Diseases: Agents, sources, reservoirs and control.
  5. Public Health Measures for Controlling Epidemics: Controls directly against the reservoirs, Controls directly against Transmission of the pathogens, Vaccination, quarantine, surveillance, environmental control.
  6. Global Health Considerations: Infectious diseases in developing and developed countries, Travel to endemic areas.
  7. Types of Epidemiological Study: Concepts of cause and risk of diseases, survey and survey methods, Cohort studies, Case-control studies, Intervention studies, Medical demography, Health education and nutrition.


Books Recommended:

  1. Schewabe, C. W. 1965. Veterinary Medicine and Human Health. William and Wilkins Company, Baltimore.
  2. Johan, C. Bell, Stephen R. Palmer and Jack M. Payne. 1988. The Zoonoses. 1stedn. Edward Arnorld.
  3. Thapaliyal, D.C.1999. Diseases of animals transmissible to man.International Book Distributing Company, Iowa State University Press, Ames.


Microb. 5204 BIOPROCESS TECHNOLOGY (Core) 3 CH 75 Marks


  1. Introduction: Importance and development of bioprocess technology, Upstream and downstream processing.
  2. Methods for Biocatalysis and Biotransformation: Concepts and general features of biotransformation, Procedures, Techniques and media for biotransformation, Reaction in solvent mixtures, Addition of organic compounds to a reaction mixture, Equipment, automation, standardization, Optimization procedures, Examples of typical bioconversion procedures.
  3. Scale Up of Microbial Processes: Criteria used for scale-up, Development of microbial processes (Important Factors-Physical, Chemical), Process and sterilization factors.
  4. Processing of Food and Feed: Raw materials, Microorganisms, Processing, food value and economic importance (Idli and Dahi, Tofu and Tempeh, Animal and poultry feeds).
  5. Biocomposting Processes: Introduction, Composting processes, Succession of microorganisms, Bio-elemental change, Application.
  6. Recent Trend in Vinegar and Citric Acid Production Processes: Potential raw materials, Fermentation, Recovery, Future prospects of vinegar and citric acid.
  7. Biopharmaceuticals: Genes for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, Antibiotic production and its modification, Metabolic engineering of antibiotic biosynthetic pathways, Biotransformation of steroids.


Books Recommended:

  1. Industrial Microbiology – Miller BM &Litsky w
  2. Prescott and Dunn’s Industrial Microbiology – Reed G
  3. Biotechnology Vol I – Rehm HJ & Reed G


Microb. 5205 / 5206 EXTREMOPHILES (Optional) 2 CH 50 Marks


  1. Extreme Environments: Microbial adaptation to extreme environments, Extreme environment as a resource for novel microorganisms.
  2. Biodiversity: Biodiversity at the molecular level, The domains, kingdoms and phyla of life, Microbiological perspective, The primary divisions of life, Domain archaea (Domain bacteria, Domain eukarya), Microbial diversity.
  3. Archaea: Phylogenetic overview (Kingdom Euryarchaea, Kingdom Crenarchaea, Hyperthermophilic archaea), Microbial evolution.
  4. Different Types of Extremophiles: The extreme Thermophiles, The extreme Acidophiles, The extreme Alkalophiles, The extreme Halophiles, The extreme Barophiles.
  1. Cultivation of Extremophilic Microorganisms: Various strategies applied for the cultivation of Extremophiles.
  1. Extremozymes: Biocatalysis under extreme conditions, Extremophiles as a source of novel enzymes for industrial application,  Screening strategies for novel enzymes,  Heat-stable amylase and glucoamylase,  Thermostable cellulases,  Thermostable xylanases,  DNA processing enzymes in PCR, High temperature reverse transcription,  Thermostab1e DNA ligase, Thermo active enzymes of biotechnological interest,  Thermostable glucose isomerases,  Thermostable alcohol de-hydrogenases,  Biochemical basis of heat stability.


Books Recommended:

  1. Foundations in Microbiology, 8th Edition. Kathleen Park TalaroandArthur Talaro. The McGraw−Hill Companies, Inc., New York.
  2. Prescott’s Microbiology, 8th Edition. 2010. Joanne Willey, Linda Sherwood and Chris Woolverton. The McGraw−Hill Companies, New York.


Microb. 5205 / 5206 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (Optional) 2 CH 50 Marks


  1. Overall Objectives: The students will be able to (Apply the basic concepts of statistics and principles of scientific inquiry in planning and evaluating the results, Participate in and or conduct descriptive, exploratory and survey studies Evaluate and apply the results of research studies in health and related fields of practice).
  2. Behavioral Objectives : The student will be able to- Design a study identifying a population and methods of selection of the sample required, Present data in appropriate tables, graphs and diagrams, Calculate averages, valuation, linear correlation and regression, Calculate confidence intervals and simple tests of significance using normal x and x2 distribution, Compute commonly used vital and health statistics and estimate population using arithmetic progression methods, Construct instruments for eliciting data through questioning, observation and measurement methods and techniques, Quantify, analyze describe and interpret of data, Select and write a clear statement of a researchable problem,  Search and analyze the literature for facts and theory relating to the problem,  Identify and state relevant assumptions-hypothesis,  Design a study identifying a population and methods of selection of sample,  Make recommendations on the finding for application and further research, Prepare and write a scientific report of the study.


Microb. 5205 / 5206 BIOMASS AND BIOFUEL (Optional) 2 CH 50 Marks


  1. Introduction: Importance of fuel energy, Fuels from nature, Basic bioenergy interconversion, Formation of biomass, Conversion of biomass to fuel.
  2. Potential Biomass for Fuel Production: Types of natural, biomasses (Land crops, Aquatic plants, Waste materials), Production of desirable biomass, Advantages and problems in utilization of biomass for fuel generation, Pretreatment of biomass for the fuel production.
  3. Bioconversion of Biomass to Methane: Biomass composition and methane production, Synthesis of methane under natural conditions, Potential microbes involved in methane generation, Man-made processes (Methane from sanitary landfills, sewage, farm, industrial waste and crops Reactor design for methane production), Utilization of the methane as fuel.
  4. Production of Fuel-Ethanol from Biomass: Potential biomass and microorganisms for ethanol production, Problems in the production of ethanol from agro-industrial wastes, Development of technology of fermentation, Ethanol production from molasses by yeast, Ethanol production from cellulose by rumen bacteria, Ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis, Future prospects of the industrial alcohol.
  5. Production of Hydrogen from Biomass: Potential substrates and microorganisms, Natural biosynthesis of hydrogen under natural habitats, Cell-free system and combined system for production of hydrogen.


Book Reference:

  1. Industrial Microbiology – Miller BM &Litsky w
  2. Prescott and Dunn’s Industrial Microbiology – Reed G
  3. Biotechnology Vol I – Rehm HJ & Reed G


Microb. 5205 / 5206 BIOMEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT AND TREATMENT (Optional) 2 CH 50 Marks


  1. Biomedical Waste: Definition and types, Management strategy and options for different kind of wastes.
  1. Health and Environmental Hazards: Physical, Chemical, and Biological.
  1. Waste Minimization: Infectious and hazardous waste in pathological laboratories, hospital wards, diagnostic centers, Operation theaters, slaughter-house, and other treatment facilities for humans and animals, Managing sharp waste and injection safety
  1. In-House Management: Collection, Disposal, and Treatment, Technical options of waste treatment, Environmental and health concern of treatment options.
  1. Biomedical Waste Management Practices: Principles, Good and bad practices, Necessity of treatment and management of Biomedical wastes, Situations in developed and developing countries, Project cycle analysis.


Books Recommended:

  1. Wool Hand Book. 1963. Bergen W.V 3rd Enlarged Edn. Interests A division of John Willey and Sons, New York, London.
  2. Sheep and Wool-Science. 1964 Newsmonger.M.E 3rd Edition /the Interstate Punters & Publishers in Danville Illinois U.S.A.
  3. Animal Science 1969. Newsmonger, M.E.The Interstate Printers & Publishers Danville. Illinois, U.S.A


Third Semester

Course Number Course Name Credit hour
Microb. 5301 Research proposal and Presentation 2.0
Microb. 5302 Thesis Evaluation 4.0
Microb. 5303 Thesis Defense 2.0
Total = 8.0


Microb. 5301 Research proposal and Presentation 2 CH 50 Marks


Microb. 5302 Thesis Evaluation 6 CH 150 Marks


Microb. 5303 Thesis Defense 2 CH 50 Marks